Chapter 4: Transport

Outcome 2 – An efficient, sustainable, competitive, safe and secure transport system for all transport users through regulation, financial assistance and safety investigations

Programme 2.1 Transport Security contributes to Outcome 2 by ensuring a more secure Australian transport system through clarity of roles and responsibilities between transport industry participants and the Australian Government. Operators are responsible for facility-level preventive security, with the Australian Government overseeing compliance.

Programme 2.2 Surface Transport contributes to Outcome 2 through activities which seek to improve the performance of the surface transport industry for the benefit of all Australians.

Programme 2.3 Road Safety contributes to Outcome 2 through the development of a safer road transport system by working to make vehicles and occupants safer and drivers more informed.

Programme 2.4 Air Transport contributes to Outcome 2 by ensuring the aviation industry operates within a clear and robust safety regulatory environment and by facilitating access to competitive international and domestic air services for Australian businesses and consumers.

Programme 2.1 – Transport Security

In Focus

Domestic Engagement

  • In September 2014 the Transport Security Outlook to 2025 was released which provides a five to 10 year forecast of transport security in Australia. The outlook forecasts global economic growth and an increase in the volume and complexity of trade and travel which will be coupled with security threats that endure and adapt. The outlook emphasises the crucial role that transport security will play in supporting Australia's economic and social prosperity into the future.
  • Options for structural changes to the current aviation security regulatory framework were examined. This work aimed to identify opportunities to move to a more risk-based, proportionate approach to aviation security regulation which is better adapted to meet the diverse needs of Australian aviation into the future.
  • Informed by engagement with overseas regulators and the results of airport visits, the Department facilitated a range of training courses, workshops and mentoring opportunities to enhance transport security outcomes in the Asia–Pacific region. The Department also facilitated study visits for counterparts from Indonesia and Thailand to receive training and mentoring in transport security policy and procedures.
  • In conjunction with the Attorney-General's Department, the Department developed a forward plan to strengthen the aviation and maritime security identification card schemes. Under this plan, progress is underway to improve issuing body practices. Strengthened eligibility criteria are also proposed to target serious and organised crime convictions. In May 2015 the Department commenced a three-month voluntary trial to produce biometrically enabled identification cards and to test the application of these in the aviation environment. Qantas and Virgin Australia are partnering with the Department in the trial and the results will help inform future policy development on the potential use of biometric technology in transport security.
  • The Department implemented two maritime security projects to reduce red tape, while maintaining appropriate security outcomes. Policy approval was received to deregulate Australian ships engaged solely on interstate voyages except passenger and vehicle ferries. Policy approval was also received to remove maritime security plan requirements for port service providers.
  • In April and May 2015 the Department collaborated with Melbourne and Sydney international airports to conduct expedited screening trials. These focused on staff and crew screening supplemented by randomly selected general passenger screening, and collected information on the impact of expedited screening on traveller throughput.
  • A range of guidance materials were released to assist with implementation of the Maritime Transport and Offshore Facilities Security Act 2003 and to ensure a consistent approach to security regulation across the maritime industry.
  • A number of risk analysis workshops were held with key industry and government stakeholders, including undertaking a comparative risk analysis of Australia's security controlled airport network.
  • A new security awareness product for use by accredited air cargo agents and regulated air cargo agents was developed and issued. The product will assist industry participants to meet their regulatory obligation to provide security awareness training to staff engaged in air cargo activities.
  • Best practice transport security risk and mitigation advice under the Australian Government's Critical Infrastructure Resilience Strategy was provided. The Department met regularly with critical infrastructure stakeholders across the maritime, aviation, oil and gas, and surface transport sectors.
  • Meetings with state and territory governments were conducted regularly to ensure national consistency of preventative security outcomes in the surface and mass urban transit sectors.
  • Policy approval was received to progress a number of proposals intended to reduce regulatory red tape across the aviation industry including streamlining Transport Security Programs and increasing flexibility for resource deployment at screening points. 

International Engagement

  • Last ports of call aviation security assessments at foreign airports provided opportunities to identify and advise bilateral partners on where enhancements could be made to security regulatory arrangements and operational aviation security outcomes.
  • The technology-based liquids, aerosols and gels proposals of Japan and the Republic of Korea were accepted. This streamlined the security process for passengers flying to Australia from these countries and reduced compliance costs for airlines as the need for secondary gate screening was removed.
  • In September and December 2014 the Department hosted meetings of the aviation security related discussion forum known as QUAD. Partners from Australia, the European Commission, Canada and the United States came together to discuss a range of aviation security matters.
  • The Department continued to use its presence at Australian embassies in Abu Dhabi, Bangkok, Jakarta and Manila to drive a range of bilateral and multilateral engagement opportunities, including cooperative capacity building activities with key partner countries in the Asia–Pacific region.

Transport Security Inquiries

  • The final report on the Review of International Maritime Piracy, and the currency of the Australian Counter Piracy and Armed Robbery at Sea advisory guidelines produced in 2010, was presented to the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Infrastructure and Regional Development, the Hon Warren Truss MP, in March 2015.

Did you know?

The growth in car ownership saw all Australian states and territories having record numbers of registered motor vehicles in 2013–2014.

Source: State of Australian Cities 2014–15

Summary of Performance

Table 4.1 Programme 2.1 key performance indicators

Key performance indicatorTargetResult
Activity is underpinned by a sound understanding of the threat and security risk environment as it affects transport security. Sound understanding of risk is demonstrated through the analysis of intelligence and other information; appropriate action is taken by the Department and industry to mitigate against new or emerging threats and the heightened likelihood of attacks; develop appropriate briefings concerning threat-related products for industry. 2014–15
Achieved
2013–14
Achieved
2012–13
Achieved
2011–12
Achieved
The Department used threat assessments and intelligence reports from Australian intelligence agencies and the national security community to inform policy development and prioritisation of compliance activity. These assessments and reports were also used to generate threat-related products as outlined in Table 4.2.

The Department enhanced its understanding of the threat and security risk environment through engagement with domestic border security, counter-terrorism agencies and international partners through the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Working Group on Threat and Risk.
Policy and regulatory activity ensures that industry achieves effective and sustainable transport preventive security outcomes. Maintain communication with stakeholders and Australian Government Agencies. 2014–15
Achieved
2013–14
Achieved
2012–13
Achieved
2011–12
Achieved
The Department has successfully collaborated with Australia Post to co-design better regulatory measures for mail examination. This will create deregulatory savings and improve operational efficiency for Australia Post's mail handling business.

The Department worked with the offshore oil and gas and the maritime transport industry to identify opportunities to improve the regulatory framework while maintaining sustainable and proportionate security measures. This included the use of facilitated workshops that considered the sustainability of security measures which sectors could implement in response to an increase in the maritime security level.

In July 2014 the Department released guidance for issuing bodies to assist in the verification of identity documents used in Aviation Security Identification Card and Maritime Security Identification Card applications.

The Department has introduced enhanced air cargo examination arrangements. This removes current duplication in examining air cargo and will also help ensure continued acceptance by the United States of US-bound freight leaving Australia.

Aviation industry stakeholders, including international, domestic and regional aircraft operators and airports, air cargo agents, aviation industry associations, local and federal police, and government agencies were consulted and regularly updated on a number of proposed regulatory and policy changes, including:

  • increasing flexibility for handling checked baggage during operational disruptions to domestic air services
  • streamlining Transport Security Programs
  • special event zone reform
  • enhancing airside security, and
  • differentiated screening. 
The transport security context domestically and internationally is influenced to advance Australian interests. Maintain engagement with international and domestic partners to influence and shape policy and future developments. 2014–15
Achieved
2013–14
Achieved
2012–13
Achieved
2011–12
Achieved
The Department continues to work closely with aviation industry participants on the development and design of air cargo policy. This ensures Australia's international obligations are met while minimising the impact of any changes on Australian businesses.

The Department remains closely engaged with international counterpart agencies to influence the international air cargo policy agenda.

The Department was represented at the ninth meeting of the World Custom's Organization Technical Experts' Group on Air Cargo Security in Belgium. The meeting focused on cross agency cooperation and working to achieve greater compatibility and harmonisation on air cargo related initiatives. This meeting aligned with the Department's work with the Department of Immigration and Border Protection on the codesign of a Trusted Trader Program.

The Department continued to work with domestic and international security technology communities to align technology requirements and promote innovation in aviation security. This included participation in the European Civil Aviation Technical Task Force, ICAO Working Group on Innovation in Aviation Security, the QUAD Technology Working Group and International Air Transport Association/Airports Council International Smart Security Management Group (made up of aviation security regulators from Australia, Canada, the European Commission and the United States).

The Department hosted meetings of our QUAD partners from the European Commission, Canada and the United States in September and December 2014. The QUAD group discussed a range of aviation security matters including risk-based screening measures and future strategic direction.

The Department accepted the technology-based liquids, aerosols and gels proposals of Japan and the Republic of Korea. This streamlined the security process for passengers flying to Australia from these countries and reduced compliance costs for airlines as the need for secondary gate screening was removed.

The Department collaborated with Melbourne and Sydney International Airports to conduct expedited screening trials during April and May 2015. These trials, which focused on staff and crew screening supplemented by randomly selected general passengers, collected information on the impact of expedited screening processes on traveller throughput.

Last ports of call aviation security assessments at foreign airports provided opportunities to identify and advise bilateral partners where enhancements could be made to aviation security regulatory arrangements and operational aviation security outcomes.

Cooperative capacity building activities with key partner countries in the Asia–Pacific have been managed in conjunction with overseas posts in Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines. Capacity building with partner country transport security regulators has delivered better national aviation security frameworks and improved regulator skills and capacity. Capacity building with foreign transport industry participants has delivered operational security enhancements at airports and ports, and also with airlines.

The Department continued to participate in the Maritime Safety Committee of the International Maritime Organization to influence and shape international maritime security policy settings.

The Department also continued to work with state and territory governments on the Transport Security Committee to facilitate nationally consistent understanding and approaches to surface transport security arrangements.

Guidance and advice on transport security and critical infrastructure resilience was provided through the Trusted Information Sharing Network transport sector group and Oil and Gas Security Forum.

Result Key
Achieved All targets for 2014–15 were met or exceeded.
Substantially achieved Targets were mostly met, and any issues are being managed.
Partially achieved Some targets were met, and any issues are being managed.
Not achieved None or minimal progress was made against targets in 2014–15.

Table 4.2 Programme 2.1 deliverables

DeliverableTargetResult
Any legislative or policy component of a transport security risk mitigation strategy is delivered efficiently and with the minimum adverse impact on industry and the travelling public. Policy, legislation and regulation development meets Australian Government deregulation objectives and complies with requirements administered by the Office of Best Practice Regulation. As part of the Australian Government's programme to reduce red tape, the Department continued to work closely with industry and Australian Government stakeholders to identify and remove red tape in relation to aviation security regulation without reducing security outcomes.

Regulatory amendments to streamline Transport Security Programs for aviation industry participants have been approved by the Deputy Prime Minister. A number of other initiatives, including increasing flexibility for resource deployment at screening points, have also been implemented.

Proposed amendments (deregulation of Australian ships engaged solely on interstate voyages and the removal of maritime security plans for port service providers to the Maritime Transport and Offshore Facilities Security Act 2003 have been undertaken in accordance with the Australian Government's red tape reduction programme and comply with Australian Government requirements.
Work with international regulators in targeted last ports of call locations to develop effective preventive security measures. Annual engagement with key regional regulators, international bodies and industry participants and targeted capacity building efforts directed at addressing transport security risks. Sixteen last ports of call aviation security assessments were conducted at overseas airports selected using risk assessment methodology. The assessments provided international partner regulators with third-party observations of their aviation security arrangements. The assessments informed and supported the Department's international engagement objectives, capacity building priorities and policy development.

International capacity building activities in 2014–15 were targeted towards priority areas and issues identified during last ports of call observations. These activities were designed to build on local aviation security knowledge and further strengthen Australia's relationships with its international regulatory and industry partners.
Percentage of ‘high risk’ cases subject to compliance activity within 12 months. 95 per cent. Compliance activity was undertaken on 97 per cent of high risk cases.
Effective administration of regulatory approval processes. Regulatory responsibilities are met. The Department continued to meet its regulatory obligations as prescribed under the transport security legislation. Consistent with the Australian Government's broader regulatory reform agenda, work is underway to streamline administrative processes.
Industry forums are consulted as required to inform policy and legislation development. All regulated industry sectors are consulted at intervals not exceeding 12 months. The Department consulted with industry participants on aviation security policy and legislative reforms through industry forums, including the Aviation Security Advisory Forum and the Regional Industry Consultative Meeting. Regular meetings were also held around the country.

The Department engaged with a wide range of industry participants on transport security policy and legislative reforms. Consultation was through well-established forums, such as the Maritime Industry Security Consultative Forum, the Oil and Gas Security Forum, the Aviation Security Advisory Forum and the Cargo Working Group.

The Maritime Industry Security Consultative Forum and the Oil and Gas Security Forum are held twice a year, while the Aviation Security Advisory Forum is held three times a year. These are the primary forums for discussing policy and legislative developments.

Other meetings with the aviation, maritime shipping and offshore oil and gas transport sectors were held on an ad-hoc basis, and focused on more targeted transport security issues.
Sector specific risk context statements and transport security advisories reviewed and issued in a timely fashion to inform industry and Australian Government preventive security measures. Sectoral Risk Context Statements are produced and disseminated to industry within four months of receipt of a sectoral threat assessment.

Transport Security Advisories are issued within seven days of receipt of significant intelligence or following a security incident.
The Department continued its involvement in the ICAO Working Group on Threat and Risk.

Twelve aviation transport security advisory, one maritime transport security advisory, one general transport security advisory and a risk context statement were released to industry.
Inspector of Transport Security undertakes inquiries as directed by the Minister. Reporting outcomes of inquiries to the Minister and Secretary in a timeframe as specified by the Minister. Two reports were provided to the Deputy Prime Minister in a timely manner.
Efficient and effective management of administered items. Items are administered in accordance with relevant legislation, published guidelines and ANAO guidance. Administered items were delivered in accordance with relevant legislation, published guidelines and Australian National Audit Office guidance.

Table 4.3 Programme 2.1 administered items

Administered ItemResult
Aviation security enhancements
–Improving international aviation security The Philippine Aviation Security Training Assistance project is funded under the Improving International Aviation Security programme and is designed to help the Philippines' comply with ICAO Aviation Security standards. It provides experienced and trained specialists including instructors, auditors and inspectors to facilitate this.

The Philippine Aviation Security Training Assistance activities are designed and delivered in partnership with the Philippine Government to enable planning for future self-resourced activities.

During 2014–15 a total of 104 aviation security personnel participated in six training courses, workshops and distance learning exercises funded under the Philippine Aviation Security Training Assistance.
–Regional passenger screening Funding of $0.8 million was provided under the Regional Passenger Screening programme in 2014–15. A total of 122 staff at 27 eligible airports received training to use hand wands.

This programme also funded 36 Aviation Security Identification Cards and 70 security licenses for participants who successfully completed the training.

Note: The budget and actual expenditure for each administered item is listed in Appendix A.

Did you know?

In inner urban areas, the number of people who are walking and cycling to work has been rising considerably in recent years. In 2011, 31 per cent of Sydney and 20 per cent of Melbourne inner city residents walked or rode to work.

Source: State of Australian Cities 2014–15

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Last Updated: 7 December, 2015