What this Chapter Covers

This chapter describes the Department's transport portfolio outcome, Outcome 2, and reports on performance for the individual programmes and administered items.

Each report includes:

  • an overview of the programme's functions and how the programme is delivered
  • a summary of the programme's results against key performance indicators, deliverables and targets
  • a summary of results for any administered items delivered by the programme in 2013–14, and
  • a detailed report on the programme's performance in 2013–14.

Outcome and Programmes

Figure 4.1 shows the relationships between Outcome 2 and its programmes, and identifies the business divisions responsible for delivering the programmes.

Figure 4.1 Outcome 2 and Programmes

Outcome 2 Programme Division or Office
An efficient, sustainable, competitive, safe and secure transport system for all transport users through regulation, financial assistance and safety investigations. 2.1 Transport Security
  • Office of Transport Security
  • Office of the Inspector of Transport Security
  • Policy and Research
2.2 Surface Transport
  • Surface Transport Policy
  • Policy and Research
2.3 Road Safety
  • Surface Transport Policy
  • Policy and Research
2.4 Air Transport
  • Aviation and Airports
  • Western Sydney Unit
  • Policy and Research

Programme 2.1—Transport Security


On 30 April 2014 technology-based liquid, aerosol and gels screening commenced at the departure screening points of Australia's eight international gateway airports. This enables oversized (greater than 100 millilitres) duty free liquid, aerosol and gels items to be screened, and if cleared, returned to the transiting passengers instead of these items having to be surrendered as was previously the case.

The Department commenced consultation with aviation industry stakeholders and government agencies on a proposal to remove some low risk items from its aviation security prohibited items list. This is being considered following the introduction of other security measures, such as hardened cockpit doors and is in line with the Australian Government's broader deregulation agenda.

The Department has continued to consult with the aviation industry and relevant government agencies on the security measures applying to the airside areas of security controlled airports, in accordance with its international treaty obligations under the Convention on International Civil Aviation.

The Regulatory Management System, a new Information Technology system, was introduced. The overarching benefits of the system will include: greater consistency and efficiency in regulatory oversight; a more seamless compliance regime; and efficiencies through automation where possible to reduce the time and resources required to complete tasks.

On 11 December 2013 the Hon. Warren Truss MP, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Infrastructure and Regional Development formally directed the Inspector of Transport Security, Mr Andy Hughes APM to undertake an inquiry into aviation and maritime transport security education and training in Australia. The inquiry is assessing the quality of existing security training programme delivery and the actual outcomes being achieved, as well as identifying any gaps, inconsistencies and redundancies in security training in each industry sector.

The inquiry team has met with a wide range of Australian Government departments, industry representatives, education and training institutions as well as visiting ports and airports both large and regional. The inquiry team has also visited relevant stakeholders in both Singapore and Hong Kong to conduct a comparative study.


Programme 2.1 was delivered through the work of the Office of Transport Security and the Office of the Inspector of Transport Security, with input from the Policy and Research Division. Programme 2.1 is designed to ensure a more secure Australian transport system through clarity of roles and responsibilities between transport industry participants and the Australian Government. Operators are responsible for facility-level preventive security, with the Australian Government oversighting compliance.

Against this context, the programme objective is to ensure a secure Australian transport system against the threat of a terrorist attack.

Summary of Performance

Tables 4.1 and 4.2 summarise the Department's results in delivering Programme 2.1 against the key performance indicators and deliverables and their targets published in the 2013–14 Portfolio Additional Estimates Statements.

Table 4.1 Summary of performance-Programme 2.1 key performance indicators

Key performance indicator Target Result
Activity is underpinned by a sound understanding of the threat and security risk environment as it affects transport security. Appropriate action taken by the Department and industry to mitigate new or emerging threats. 2013–14

The Department used threat assessments and intelligence reports from Australian intelligence agencies and the national security community to inform policy development and prioritisation of compliance activity. These assessments and reports were also used to generate threat-related products as outlined in Table 4.2

The Department enhanced its understanding of the threat and security risk environment through engagement with domestic border security and counter-terrorism agencies and international partners through the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Working Group on Threat and Risk.

Policy and regulatory activity ensures that industry achieves effective and sustainable transport preventive security outcomes.

Australian Government endorsed transport security policy settings are shaped by Australian national interests, threat assessments, international agreements, and industry sector developments and capacity.

Departmental regulatory activity is designed to ensure transport security regimes are robust and meet Australian Government legislative requirements Departmental compliance activity will be targeted and focus on high risk industry participants where appropriate


Development of future air cargo security policy settings was progressed.

The proposed regulatory amendments to the Aviation Transport Security Regulations 2005 discussion paper was provided to air cargo industry stakeholders. There were 14 formal responses, as well as oral feedback through discussions with industry participants.

The Department has conducted a range of site visits to air cargo exporting and freight forwarding businesses to better understand their operations and inform the development of future air cargo security policy.

The Department has commenced a project that is mapping how the air export supply chain is regulated by various Australian Government agencies.

This will identify gaps and overlaps in existing obligations on exporters and freight forwarders, and support a whole-of-government approach to future regulation.

The transport security context domestically and internationally is influenced to advance Australian interests. The Department engages with relevant international organisations and overseas governments to ensure international and Australian preventive security settings address and mitigate the most likely transport security events. 2013–14

The Department continued to provide nationally consistent guidance and practical advice on transport security and critical infrastructure resilience to transport owners and operators.

The Department worked closely with key aviation and maritime security partners; industry peak bodies; and international institutions to influence transport security policy and settings and the delivery of related operational and regulatory outcomes.

Internationally the Department engaged directly with bilateral partners and multilateral groupings such as the ICAO, International Maritime Organization and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.

Last ports of call aviation security assessments at foreign airports provided opportunities to identify and advise bilateral partners where enhancements could be made to aviation security regulatory arrangements and operational aviation security outcomes.

Cooperative capacity building activities with key partner countries in the Asia-Pacific region have been managed in conjunction with overseas posts in Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines. Capacity building with partner country transport security regulators has delivered better national aviation security frameworks and improved regulator skills and capacity. Capacity building with foreign transport industry participants has delivered operational security enhancements at airports and ports and with airlines and the shipping industry.

The Department continued to work with domestic and international security technology communities to harmonise technology requirements and shape future capabilities. This included participation in the European Civil Aviation Technical Task Force, ICAO, Working Group on Technology and the Quadrilateral (QUAD) Technology Working Group.

Work continued to progress the coordinated implementation of liquid, aerosol and gels screening as part of the QUAD-driven agenda to explore the feasibility of relaxing restrictions through the implementation of new screening equipment.

The Department remains an active member on the ICAO Aviation Security Panel and related working groups to influence the international aviation security agenda.

In March 2014 the Department delivered a presentation on security management systems, focusing on development of practical guidance to assist with the implementation of a security management systems approach.

The Department also continues to engage with our QUAD partners from the United States, European Commission and Canada, to enhance the international aviation security framework.

Result Key
Achieved All targets for 2013–14 were met or exceeded
Substantially achieved Targets were mostly met, and any issues are being managed
Partially achieved Some targets were met, and any issues are being managed
Not achieved None or minimal progress was made against targets in 2013–14

Table 4.2 Summary of performance-Programme 2.1 deliverables

Deliverable Target Result
Implement National Aviation Policy Statement. Implement National Aviation Policy Statement initiatives.

The Department completed the development of two new national aviation security screener qualifications and an aviation security skillset aimed at the entire workforce within the airport precinct. These were endorsed by the former National Skills Standards Council.

Registered training organisations seeking to deliver the qualifications are required to meet the Australian Skills Quality Authority's regulatory standards for training delivery.

Any legislative or policy component of a transport security risk mitigation strategy is delivered efficiently and with the minimum adverse impact on industry and the travelling public. Policy legislation and regulation development complies with Office of Best Practice Regulation standards. The Department worked with industry and other border agencies to introduce technology-based liquids, aerosols and gels screening at outbound screening points at Australia's eight international gateway airports on 30 April 2014. This is the first phase of an international three phase approach enabling the progressive relaxation of liquids, aerosols and gels restrictions.
Work with international regulators in targeted last ports of call locations to develop effective preventive security measures. Annual engagement with key regional regulators, international bodies and industry participants and targeted capacity building efforts directed at addressing transport security vulnerabilities.

15 last ports of call aviation security assessments were conducted at foreign airports selected using risk assessment methodology. The assessments provided international partner regulators with third-party observations of their aviation security arrangements. The assessments both informed and supported the Department's international engagement objectives, capacity building priorities and policy development.

International capacity building activities in 2013–14 were targeted towards priority areas/issues identified during last ports of call observations. These activities were designed to build on local aviation security knowledge and further strengthen Australia's relationships with its international regulatory and industry partners.

Percentage of ‘high risk’ cases subject to compliance activity within 12 months. 95 per cent. 95 per cent.
Effective administration of regulatory approval processes. Regulatory responsibilities are met.

All regulatory responsibilities were met.

The new regulatory management system will support national consistency in the assessment of regulatory approvals and provide efficiencies through automation of regulatory tasks.

Industry forums are consulted as required to inform policy and legislation development. All regulated industry sectors are consulted at intervals not exceeding 12 months.

The Department regularly met with a wide range of industry participants on transport security policy and legislative reforms through well-established consultative forums, such as:

  • the Aviation Security Advisory Forum and the Regional Industry Consultative Meeting.
  • the Maritime Industry Security Consultative Forum and Offshore Oil and Gas Security Forum, and.
  • the Cargo Working Group.

These forums have provided the Department with important feedback on proposed reforms, which will shape this work as it proceeds.

A range of other meetings and consultation was undertaken with the aviation, air cargo, maritime, shipping and offshore oil and gas transport sectors.

The Aviation Security Training Advisory Group facilitated the development of two new national aviation security screener qualifications and an aviation security skillset aimed at the entire workforce within the airport precinct.

Following the introduction of liquids, aerosols and gels screening, the Department collected data at the eight international airports to help identify process improvements, measure the impact of liquid, aerosols and gels screening and assist future policy development.

Sector specific risk context statements and Transport Security Advisories reviewed and issued in a timely fashion to inform industry and Australian Government preventive security measures.

Sectoral Risk Context Statements are produced and disseminated to industry within four months of receipt of a sectoral threat assessment.

Transport Security Advisories are issued within seven days of receipt of significant intelligence or following a security incident with relevance to transport preventive security outcomes.

The Department continued involvement in the ICAO Working Group on Threat and Risk including updates to ICAO risk matrices to support international understanding of risk.

Thirteen Transport Security Advisories, three Aviation Security Quarterly Reports and three Maritime Security Quarterly Reports were released to industry.

Inspector of Transport Security undertakes inquiries as directed by the Minister. Reporting outcomes of inquiries to the Minister and Secretary in a timeframe as specified by the Minister. The Inspector of Transport Security is to provide a draft report of his inquiry into aviation and maritime transport security education and training in Australia to the Deputy Prime Minister in early 2015 as directed in the terms of reference.
Efficient and effective management of administered items. Items are administered in accordance with relevant legislation, published guidelines and ANAO guidance. Administered items were delivered in accordance with relevant legislation, published guidelines and ANAO guidance.

Did you know?

There were 31.3 million passengers carried on international flights to and from Australia in 2011–12. This represents a 5.9 per cent increase in passengers compared to 2012. Fifty-four international airlines operated scheduled services during 2013. The share of passengers carried by Australian designated airlines has decreased from 34.1 per cent ten years ago to 30.4 per cent in 2013.

Source: International Airline Activity 2013.

Table 4.3 provides a summary of the results achieved by each of the administered items under Programme 2.1.

Table 4.3 Summary of performance-Programme 2.1 administered items

Administered Item Result
Aviation security enhancements
-Improving international aviation security

The Philippine Aviation Security Training Assistance (PASTA) project funded under the Improving International Aviation Security programme is designed to assist the Philippines' ability to comply with ICAO Aviation Security (AVSEC) standards. It seeks to provide experienced and trained AVSEC specialists including instructors, auditors and inspectors.

PASTA activities are designed and delivered in partnership with the Philippine Government to enable planning for future self-resourced activities.

For 2013–14, a total of 111 aviation security personnel participated in six training courses, workshops and distance learning exercises funded under PASTA.

For 2014–15, the Philippines has committed funds to deliver the following activities under PASTA: security-by-design; aviation security programme development workshop; and basic aviation security management workshops.

-Regional passenger screening

Funding of $0.8 million was spent under the Regional Passenger Screening programme in 2013–14. 154 staff at 33 eligible airports received training in the use of hand wands.

This programme also funded 61 Aviation Security Identification Cards and 76 security licences for participants who successfully completed the training.

Strengthening aviation security
-Optimal technologies at international gateway airports Funding of $22,000 was spent under the Optimal Technologies at International Gateway Airports programme to develop communication products to inform the public of changes to liquids, aerosols and gels screening which came into effect on 30 April 2014.
-Regional and domestic aviation security

The Regional and Domestic Aviation Security programme provided funding of $0.3 million. Under the New Entrant Regional Airport programme, one eligible airport received funding to assist with purchasing basic screening equipment required to meet regulatory changes introduced on 1 July 2012.

One funding agreement was entered into to assist the airport to purchase one checked baggage screening machine.

Note: The budget and actual expenditure for each administered item is listed in Appendix A.


Implementation of Technology Based Screening

a photograph of Implementation of Technology Based Screening

On 30 April 2014 technology based screening of liquids, aerosols and gels (LAGs) was introduced at Australia's international gateway airports (Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Gold Coast, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney) departure screening points.

The introduction of technology based screening of LAGs at departure screening points builds on the progress already made at Australian international gateway transit screening points, where the technology has been in operation since July 2012. Australian international gateway airports are now able to screen duty-free LAGs items over 100 millilitres that are presented at departure screening points, provided they are contained in a sealed plastic bag from the point of sale and have an accompanying proof of purchase. This means passengers are now able to carry their eligible duty free LAGs items with them inside the aircraft cabin once they have been cleared through the screening point.

The implementation required two new technologies to be introduced at Australia's international gateway airport departure screening points: multi-view X-ray systems and bottled liquid scanners. These technologies are both individually capable of detecting liquid explosives. The detection capabilities of these screening technologies allow the Australian Government to protect the safety and security of the travelling public and to provide an enhanced passenger experience.

The introduction of technology based LAGs screening forms part of the Australian Government's commitment to relax LAGs restrictions in line with the United States, Canada and the European Commission. Along with Australia, these countries have all agreed to implement a phased plan to introduce LAGs screening which will allow for the progressive relaxation of the restrictions on what size LAGs passengers are able to bring through the screening point over time.

Detailed Report on Performance

The following report is against the components of Programme 2.1 in the 2013–14 Portfolio Additional Estimates Statements.

(a) Domestic Engagement

Domestic legislation mandates risk-based preventive security outcomes in the aviation, air cargo, maritime and offshore oil and gas sectors. In consultation with industry, the Department develops appropriate and targeted transport security policies, routinely advises industry of the security risk context within which their transport preventive security planning should be focused, and ensures industry compliance with requirements of the relevant legislation. Regulated industry preventive security initiatives must be risk-based in addressing the nature and level of threat, as determined by the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation's National Threat Assessment Centre, and security vulnerabilities, including those identified by the Australian Crime Commission's serious and organised crime assessments.

The Department is the lead Australian Government agency for the national provision of best practice transport security risk and mitigation advice under the Australian Government's Critical Infrastructure Protection Programme. Under the Council of Australian Government Intergovernmental Agreement on Surface Transport Security, the Department also works with state and territory governments to ensure national consistency of preventive security outcomes in the surface and mass urban transit sectors.

(b) International Engagement

Australia's aviation and maritime sectors are internationally networked. As a consequence, the security of these sectors in Australia is influenced and impacted by the policy frameworks and adequacy of security arrangements overseas. Australia's domestic transport security arrangements address Australia's obligations to the ICAO and the International Maritime Organization. In addition, the Department works bilaterally and through a range of multilateral forums to shape and influence ICAO, the international security debate and to advance Australia's interests. Where possible, the Department works to build regional country capacity for them to deliver more robust transport security outcomes, thus minimising the threat to Australia from incoming aircraft and ships.

(c) Transport Security Inquiries

On 11 December 2014 the Deputy Prime Minister formally directed the Inspector of Transport Security, Mr Andy Hughes APM, to undertake an inquiry into aviation and maritime transport security education and training in Australia. Currently the Inspector is engaged in the inquiry process to assess the quality of existing security training programme delivery and the actual outcomes being achieved, and to identify gaps, inconsistencies and redundancies in security training in each industry sector. A draft report is to be provided to the Deputy Prime Minister by early 2015.

Did you know?

The total quantity of freight carried on international flights to and from Australia in 2013 was 878,795 tonnes which is an increase of 1.0 per cent compared to the previous year.

Source: International Airline Activity 2013.


Building Sustainable Transport Security: Best Practice Auditing in the Region

a photograph of Building Sustainable Transport Security: Best Practice Auditing in the Region

To support Australia's interests in influencing international transport security outcomes and assisting key partners, the Department's multilateral Quality Assurance Framework for Transport Security Project has delivered key transport security outcomes for the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia. The project, which began in July 2012 and will end in December 2014, focuses on regulatory and policy development, improving quality assurance processes and enhancing transport security programmes.

As one of the multilateral activities the Department facilitated a lead auditor course in Australia involving four transport security officials each from the Philippines and Vietnam. Following this course, participants then led four specific peer auditing maritime and aviation assessment activities in the Philippines and Vietnam to use the skills acquired in Australia.

The peer reviews used auditing techniques to assess the application and implementation of mandatory regulatory security measures and controls. Each peer audit review examined the audit documentation and methodology used by the inspectors. The reviews used auditing principles for each economy, the lead audit principles provided during audit training in Australia, and the principles of audit methodology from the ICAO. The requirements and guidance materials from the International Maritime Organization provided the benchmarks for each review.

Participants trained on the peer auditing activities were able to apply the skills in real time as well as receive guidance and feedback from Office of Transport Security staff based in Manila and Bangkok. This approach reinforced the skills developed during the lead auditor course in Australia. The feedback from the mentoring will be used for future quality control activities conducted by the national transport security regulators.

A ‘train the trainer' approach has been used to deliver the course material and participants have learned how to transfer their new skills and knowledge within their own agencies. Sustainable outcomes will be delivered after the completion of the programme through ongoing contact by departmental staff posted in Manila and Bangkok who are able to monitor the project's implementation as well as facilitate future engagement with local officials.

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Last Updated: 3 February, 2015