Chapter 4: Transport
- Program 2.1—Transport Security
- Program 2.2—Surface Transport
- Program 2.3—Road Safety
- Program 2.4—Air Transport
What this Chapter Covers
This chapter describes the Department's transport portfolio outcome, Outcome 2, and reports on performance for the individual programs and administered items.
Each report includes:
- an overview of the program's functions and how it is delivered
- a summary of the program's results against key performance indicators and deliverables and targets in the 2012–13 Portfolio Budget Statements (PB Statements)
- a summary of results for administered items delivered in 2012–13, and
- a detailed report on performance of the program in 2012–13 against applicable components from the 2012–13 PB Statements.
Outcome and Programs
Figure 4.1 shows the relationships between Outcome 2 and its programs, and identifies the business divisions responsible for delivering the programs.
Figure 4.1 Outcome 2 and programs
An efficient, sustainable, competitive, safe and secure transport system for all transport users through regulation, financial assistance and safety investigations.
2.1 Transport Security
Division or Office
Office of Transport Security
Office of the Inspector of Transport Security
2.2 Surface Transport
Surface Transport Policy
Policy and Research
2.3 Road Safety
Surface Transport Policy
Policy and Research
2.4 Air Transport
Aviation and Airports
Policy and Research
Program 2.1—Transport Security
The Department provided additional funding of $9.0 million under the Strengthening Aviation Security Initiative to help airports purchase security screening equipment. The New Entrant Regional Airport and Regional Passenger Screening programs continued to assist regional airports servicing larger aircraft to procure security screening equipment, and for security training for regional and remote airports. On 1 July 2012, technology-based screening of liquid, aerosol and gel products (LAGs) started at the transit screening points of Australia's eight international gateway airports. This measure was a world first and provided operational experience and data for international partners to consider as they prepare to implement similar processes. Under the Optimal Technologies at International Gateway Airports program, there was further funding to purchase additional bottled liquid scanners and multi-view x-ray machines that will enable the technology-based screening of LAGs to be extended to international departure screening points at the international gateway airports. Introduction of these technologies will enable progressive relaxation of LAGs restrictions in line with internationally agreed timeframes, meaning that travellers will soon be able to carry certain LAGs items with them inside the aircraft cabin.
Body scanner screening started at international departure and transit screening points at Australia's eight international gateway airports on 3 December 2012. To support implementation of body scanners, amendments were made to the Aviation Transport Security Act 2004 and the Aviation Transport Security Regulations 2005. These amendments contained important measures to ensure a person's privacy is maintained during a body scan.
Initiatives detailed in the Australian Government's National Aviation Policy Statement, published in December 2009, continued to be delivered. They included: ensuring greater national consistency in aviation security screening outcomes through development of the Certificate II in Aviation Transport Protection; ministerial approval of the Aviation Security, Fly in-Fly Out (FIFO) Code of Conduct for Closed Charter FIFO Operations; and development of a national strategic framework for Airport Front of House Security in cooperation with the aviation industry and other Australian Government agencies. The code of conduct is an alternative to a legislated, regulatory approach and formalises a framework already in place in the resources sector. It will apply to all aircraft with a maximum take-off weight greater than 20,000 kilograms used for domestic closed charter FIFO operations.
Measures to improve the quality of security training and staff development are being put in place. For example, the Certificate II in Aviation Transport Protection, now meeting Australian quality framework standards, will soon be delivered via the whole-of-government vocational education and training system. The curriculum and assessment of this qualification has been developed by the Department with industry and facilitated through the national skills standards endorsement process by the Transport and Logistics Industry Skills Council.
The Department coordinated the Australian Government response to the Inspector of Transport Security's Offshore Oil and Gas Resources Sector Security Inquiry, which made recommendations to further strengthen security of the offshore oil and gas sector. On 14 May 2013, the Australian Government response was tabled in Parliament by the Minister for Infrastructure and Transport and the Department is coordinating implementation of the response with other government agencies, industry participants and stakeholders.
Program 2.1 was delivered through the Office of Transport Security and the Office of the Inspector of Transport Security. Program 2.1 is designed to ensure a more secure Australian transport system through clarity of roles and responsibilities between transport industry participants and the Australian Government. Operators are responsible for facility-level preventive security, with the Australian Government oversighting compliance.
Against this context, the program objective is to ensure a secure Australian transport system against the threat of a terrorist attack.
Summary of Performance
Tables 4.1 and 4.2 summarise the Department's results in delivering Program 2.1 against key performance indicators and deliverables and their targets as published in the 2012–13 PB Statements.
Table 4.1 Summary of performance—Program 2.1 key performance indicators
|Key performance indicator||Target||Result|
|Activity is underpinned by a sound understanding of the threat and security risk environment as it affects transport security.||Sound understanding of threat and risk is demonstrated through the analysis of available intelligence and vulnerability indicators; appropriate action by the Department and industry to mitigate against new or emerging threats and the heightened likelihood of attacks; appropriate briefings and threat-related products by the Department to industry.||12–13 Achieved||11–12 Achieved||10–11 Achieved||09–10 Achieved|
The Department used threat assessments and intelligence reports from Australian intelligence agencies and the national security community to inform policy development.
Engagement with the National Counter Terrorism Framework continued. The Department took the lead on coordinating, developing, managing and facilitating aviation, maritime and offshore oil and gas security exercises.
|Policy and regulatory activity ensures that industry achieves effective and sustainable transport preventive security outcomes.||Effective policy leads to timely changes in transport security legislation and facility level transport security plans/programs, provides a framework for preventative security mitigation measures, minimises unintended consequences for transport operators and can be implemented at the facility level/operating environment in a flexible manner. Effective regulatory activity is demonstrated by a high degree of compliance and enhanced security culture by industry operators, a reduction in transport security vulnerabilities with appropriate departmental compliance activity.||12–13 Achieved||11–12 Achieved||10–11 Achieved||09–10 Achieved|
Development of future air cargo security policy settings progressed.
The discussion paper Building a More Secure End-to-End Supply Chain for Our Australian Air Cargo Exports was released. It elicited 42 formal submissions. The Maritime Transport and Offshore Facilities Security Amendment Regulations 2012 (No. 3) came into effect on 28 November 2012 and 1 February 2013 respectively. These regulations extend current standards applicable to maps and prescribe supervision and control measures for screening of people and baggage. The Maritime Transport and Offshore Facilities Security Amendment (Security Assessment Inspectors) Regulation 2013 started on 19 June 2013. The regulation prescribes criteria that a person must satisfy to become a maritime security assessment inspector.
The Aviation Transport Security Amendment (Screening) Act 2012 commenced on 27 November 2012 and introduced amendments relating to body scanners. Amendments to the Aviation Transport Security Regulations 2005 which also came into effect on 27 November 2012 requiring signage to be displayed regarding the new consent provision, and enabling a no opt-out policy.
Development of future policy settings for a strengthened airside inspection regime progressed.
|The transport security context domestically and internationally is influenced to advance Australian interests.||The Department works with international partners and bodies to improve international transport security frameworks and awareness, and works with other international regulators to develop effective preventive security measures in response to terrorist threats. The Department incorporates international aviation and maritime agreements and utilises international best practice guidance materials within Australia's national transport preventive security regimes. The Department works with other government agencies to develop nationally consistent surface and mass transport security outcomes, and to provide risk mitigation advice to transport critical infrastructure.||12–13 Achieved||11–12 Achieved||10–11 Achieved||09–10 Achieved|
|Last Port of Call (LPOC) aviation security assessments were conducted at foreign airports, providing opportunities to advise on enhancements.
The Department continued to implement technology-based screening of LAGs products. The Department shared LAGs screening experiences with the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) High-Level Conference on Aviation Security in September 2012.
The Department participated in the ICAO Aviation Security Panel Working Group on Air Cargo Security (WGACS) which resulted in improved ICAO standards and recommended practices for air cargo security that came into force on 15 July 2013. In June 2013, the Department hosted the 5th meeting of the WGACS to refine international standards and guidance.
The Department participated in the ICAO Working Group on Threat and Risk which resulted in amendments to existing risk matrices for improvised explosive devices and the development of new matrices for cyber, air services, air traffic management and catering services.
Engagement continued with security technology communities regarding emerging technologies that hold potential for transport security applications.
The Department continued to work with state and territory governments on a nationally consistent approach to surface transport security.
The Department engaged in international discussions on maritime security, including piracy, through the International Maritime Organization and United Nations bodies.
|Achieved||All targets for 2011–12 were met or exceeded.|
|Substantially achieved||Targets were mostly met, and any issues are being managed.|
|Partially achieved||Some targets were met, and any issues are being managed.|
|Not achieved||None or minimal progress was made against targets in 2011–12.|
Table 4.2 Summary of performance—Program 2.1 deliverables
|Implement National Aviation Policy Statement.||Implement National Aviation Policy Statement initiatives.||
Regulations to extend passenger and checked baggage screening for relevant aircraft came into effect on 1 July 2013. In addition, aviation security airport classification system regulations based on the risk profile of airports were implemented on that date.
In June 2013, the Minister approved the Aviation Security, Fly In-Fly Out Code of Conduct for Closed Charter Fly In-Fly Out Operations. The National Assessment Tool for Certificate II in Aviation Transport Protection met necessary requirements on 27 May 2013.
|Any legislative or policy component of a transport security risk mitigation strategy is delivered efficiently and with the minimum adverse impact on industry and the travelling public.||Policy, legislation and regulation development complies with Office of Best Practice Regulation standards.||
Changes to security documentation requirements for air cargo were implemented to strengthen security arrangements for air cargo.
The Accredited Air Cargo Agent Scheme was implemented, enhancing security for smaller operators. See the case study on the Accredited Air Cargo Agent Scheme in this chapter for further information.
The Aviation Transport Security Amendment (Inbound Cargo Security Enhancement) Bill 2013 received Royal Assent on 28 May 2013 and is now known as the Aviation Transport Security Amendment (Inbound Cargo Security Enhancement) Act 2013. The Act enables the Minister to prohibit certain types of air cargo entering Australia.
The amendment to the Maritime Transport and Offshore Facility Security Regulations 2003 reduced regulatory burden. New policy settings for passenger cruise ships increased flexibility for industry to meet maritime security outcomes.
|Work with international regulators in targeted last ports of call locations to develop effective preventive security measures.||Annual engagement with key regional regulators, international bodies and industry participants.||Sixteen LPOC aviation security assessments were conducted. The assessments provided partner regulators with observations of their security arrangements. The assessments informed and supported the Department's international engagement objectives, capacity-building priorities and policy development. A number of capacity-building activities were completed in 2012–13 that were complementary to LPOC assessment observations.|
|Percentage of ‘high risk’ cases subject to compliance activity within 12 months.||95%.||The Department exceeded the PB Statement target in relation to this deliverable.|
|Effective administration of regulatory approval processes.||Regulatory responsibilities are met.||All regulatory responsibilities were met.|
|Industry forums are consulted as required to inform policy and legislation development.||All regulated industry sectors are consulted at intervals not exceeding 12 months.||
The Department consulted industry participants on transport security policy and legislative reforms through established forums and other meetings with aviation, air cargo, maritime, shipping and offshore oil and gas transport sectors.
Targeted industry consultative forums were used to engage with industry regarding projects, including those stemming from the Parliamentary Joint Committee on Law Enforcement and Australian National Audit Office reports. These reports contained recommendations for improvements to identity security management, including the Aviation Security Identification Cards and Maritime Security Identification Cards administered by the Department. The Department also helped develop a serious and organised crime industry forum. Workshops were conducted to develop future air cargo security policy settings. The Department made more than 60 site visits to potential regulated shippers around Australia in major metropolitan as well as regional locations.
Three meetings of the Cargo Working Group
The Department hosted an Airport Front of House Security Forum that presented approaches to implementing risk-based strategies and progressed development of draft guidance to support the aviation industry.
The Airside Working Group continued to help develop a regulatory framework for the strengthened airside inspection regime, and inform policy decisions and timeframes.
|Sector specific risk context statements and transport security advisories reviewed and issued in a timely fashion to inform industry and Government preventive security measures.||Sectoral Risk Context Statements are produced and disseminated to industry within four months of receipt of a sectoral threat assessment. Transport Security Advisories are issued within seven days of receipt of significant intelligence or following a security incident with relevance to transport preventive security outcomes.||
Continued involvement in the ICAO Working Group on Threat and Risk, including finalisation of the ICAO Global Risk Context Statement (RCS), updates to ICAO Risk Matrices on cyber, air services, air traffic management and catering services.
The Department released the Aviation RCS and Air Cargo RCS. A portal was established on govdex* to enable international partners to have access to the Department's Transport Security Advisories.
Four risk context related products were released to industry. Thirty four Transport Security Advisories were released to industry.
|Inspector of Transport Security undertakes inquiries as directed by the Minister.||Reporting outcomes of inquiries to the Minister and Secretary in a timeframe as specified by the Minister.||The inquiry concluded and a draft report was provided to the Minister.|
|Efficient and effective management of administered items.||Items are administered in accordance with relevant legislation, published guidelines and ANAO guidance.||Items were administered in accordance with relevant legislation, published guidelines and ANAO guidance.|
Note: * govdex supports collaboration across government. It is a secure, private web-based space that helps government agencies to manage projects, and share documents and information.
Table 4.3 provides a summary of the results achieved by each of the administered items under Program 2.1.
Table 4.3 Summary of performance—Program 2.1 administered items
|Aviation security enhancements|
|Improving international aviation security||
The Philippine Aviation Security Training Assistance (PASTA) project funded under the Improving International Aviation Security program is designed to assist the Philippines' ability to comply with ICAO Aviation Security (AVSEC) standards. It seeks to provide experienced and trained AVSEC specialists, including instructors, auditors and inspectors.
PASTA activities are designed in partnership with the Philippine Government to ensure sustainable outcomes, that is, funding provided to activities is consistent with the Philippine Government's own budget allocations for like activities.
For 2012–13, a total of 206 aviation security personnel participated in 21 training courses, workshops and distance learning exercises funded under PASTA.
|Regional passenger screening||
Funding of $0.8 million was spent under the Regional Passenger Screening program in 2012–13. There were 19 eligible airports which received training in the use of hand wands and 112 employees participated.
The program also funded replacement hand wand equipment for 103 eligible airports, as well as three newly eligible airports. Each airport received full hand wand metal detection equipment kits.
|Strengthening aviation security|
|Optimal technologies at international gateway airports||The Optimal Technologies at International Gateway Airports program provided funding of $8.2 million in 2012–13. A total of six funding agreements were entered into which assisted Australia's international gateway airports to purchase 35 multi-view x-ray machines and 18 bottled liquid scanners. This will enable the progressive relaxation of current restrictions on carriage of liquids, aerosols and gels in aircraft cabins.|
|Regional and domestic aviation security||
The Regional and Domestic Aviation Security program provided funding of $0.7 million in 2012–13. Under the New Entrant Regional Airport program, two eligible airports received funding to help purchase basic screening equipment to meet regulatory changes introduced on 1 July 2012.
Two funding agreements were entered into to help airports purchase one checked baggage screening machine, two passenger baggage screening machines, two explosive trace detection machines, one walk-through metal detector, and four hand-held metal detectors.
Note: The budget and actual expenditure for each administered item is listed in Appendix A.
Accredited Air Cargo Agent Scheme
A high priority for the Australian Government is maintaining a strong aviation security framework that protects travellers and allows businesses to operate efficiently and cost-effectively.
In June 2012, the Department implemented the Accredited Air Cargo Agent Scheme to enhance and simplify security measures that keep air cargo secure before it is loaded onto an aircraft.
The new Accredited Air Cargo Agent Scheme complements the existing Regulated Air Cargo Agent Scheme and covers businesses, such as couriers, that secure road transport of cargo destined for carriage by air.
The Accredited Air Cargo Agent Scheme participants secure cargo using a model security. The Scheme is a simplified regulatory framework with lower administrative burden which gives high-level assurance for aviation security. The Scheme has strengthened the supply chain by enhancing security procedures for road transport of air cargo. At July 2013, there were over 100 participants, many of them previously regulated under the Regulated Air Cargo Agent Scheme.
Under the continuing Securing the Air Cargo Security program, further changes will build on the initial rollout of the Accredited Air Cargo Agent Scheme. Its flexibility is expected to allow more businesses to transition into the scheme, reducing regulatory and administrative burdens and maintaining the security outcome.
Detailed Report on Performance
The following report is against the components of Program 2.1 in the 2012–13 PB Statements.
(a) Domestic Engagement
In 2012–13, the Department developed and implemented maritime security initiatives in close consultation with maritime industry participants and other stakeholders using well-established forums such as the Maritime Industry Security Consultative Forum and the associated Passenger Ship Working Group. For example, the Department recently began formal inspections of on-board passenger and baggage screening arrangements on foreign-flagged cruise ships to ensure they are equivalent to or exceed standards at passenger ship terminals. The Department also implemented new supervision and control measures for passengers and baggage embarking cruise ships and flexible outcome-focused measures for waterside security at capital city ports.
The Department also progressed various projects to strengthen the Aviation Security Identification Card (ASIC) and Maritime Security Identification Card (MSIC) schemes, including developing proposed amendments to the Aviation Transport Security Regulations and Maritime Transport and Offshore Facilities Security Regulations, to effect various improvements to issuing body processes. There were consultations with stakeholders regarding potential changes to better target the offence criteria that predetermines eligibility to hold an ASIC or MSIC, and to review the way compliance results are used to improve audit and compliance activity.
The Department coordinated the Australian Government response to the Inspector of Transport Security's Offshore Oil and Gas Resources Sector Security Inquiry. The inquiry report made recommendations to strengthen security of the offshore oil and gas sector. The Oil and Gas Security Forum was used as a point of consultation when developing the report, which included consultation with owners and operators of oil and gas critical infrastructure, as well as state and territory government agencies responsible for critical infrastructure resilience in the offshore oil and gas sector. On 14 May 2013, the Australian Government response was tabled in the Parliament by the Minister for Infrastructure and Transport. The Department subsequently began coordinating implementation of the response with other government agencies, industry participants and stakeholders.
In aviation, the Department continued to engage with industry stakeholders through the Security Technology Advisory Group to ensure the smooth introduction of new optimal screening technologies announced under the Australian Government's Strengthening Aviation Security Initiative. The Department also continued to work with industry stakeholders and relevant government agencies through the Airside Working Group to introduce more robust methods of screening for non-passengers, goods and vehicles on entrance into airside areas and facilities most vulnerable to acts of unlawful interference with aviation. This strengthened airside inspection regime will apply at Australia's capital city airports, as well as at Cairns and Gold Coast international airports.
(b) International Engagement
The Department continues to maintain its overseas posts as part of its commitment to strengthening international transport security with overseas counterparts. The Department has posts in Australian embassies in Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, the United Arab Emirates and the United States of America. The Department continued to support AusAid programs in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia.
During 2012–13, the Department:
- continued international engagement through building bilateral relationships with counterpart agencies, and
- delivered aviation and maritime capacity-building activities in Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Timor Leste, Vietnam and the Pacific.
The Department continued its program of aviation security assessments of international airports with direct flights to Australia. These Last Ports of Call assessments inform the Department's international engagement, capacity-building and policy development.
Last Ports of Call assessments were conducted at 16 international airports in 2012–13, selected using a risk-assessment methodology. The assessments of airport and airline security operations were conducted with the cooperation of the local aviation security partner regulator, and based on Annex 17 (security) to the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation.
The Department contributed to ongoing research efforts of the International Transport Security Human Factors Technical Advisory Group (InterTAG) on 13–15 October 2012, which has met 22 times in various locations around the world to progress issues and projects around the critical human factors in aviation security. The presentations on enhanced training for officers screening passengers and checked baggage and on a performance measurement framework based on key performance indicators, in partnership with the InterTAG chairman, were well received, particularly by European representatives.
The Department participated in the 37th meeting of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Transportation Working Group meeting which was held in Ho Chi Minh City in April 2013, attended by 250 delegates from 16 APEC economies. The working group meets to progress directives set by APEC transport ministers to ensure secure, safe and sustainable transport systems in the Asia Pacific region. A key focus of the meeting in Ho Chi Minh City was developing the joint ministerial statement and arrangements for the APEC transport ministers' meeting in Tokyo on 5 September 2013.
The Department continued to engage with like-minded international aviation security regulators through the QUAD group. QUAD group membership consists of Australia, Canada, the United States of America and the European Commission. This strategic group shares information and fosters a harmonised approach to international aviation security arrangements. During 2012–13, the Department worked closely with QUAD partners to prepare for the coordinated implementation of technology-based screening of liquids, aerosols and gel products and the subsequent progressive relaxation of restrictions on carriage of these items.
(c) Transport Security Inquiries
On 27 August 2012 the Minister for Infrastructure and Transport formally directed the new Inspector of Transport Security, Mr Andrew Hughes APM, to undertake an inquiry into unauthorised air and sea transport entry and exit into and through the Torres Strait and Cape York Peninsular areas of Northern Australia and across the international border with Papua New Guinea.
The inquiry is now concluded (at 30 June 2013) and the report was provided to the Australian Government in July 2013.
Body Scanner Implementation
In December 2012, major Australian airports began using body scanners to screen passengers at international departure and transit screening points. Body scanners are the most advanced passenger screening technology available and can identify items that other screening technologies cannot detect. Introducing body scanners is part of the Australian Government's Strengthening Aviation Security Initiative, which aims to make air travel safer and more secure for all passengers.
In 2012, changes were made to the Aviation Transport Security Act 2004 and the Aviation Transport Security Regulations 2005 to prepare for body scanners. These changes included important measures to make sure that people's privacy is protected. These include a condition that any image produced by a body scanner must be a generic image that does not show any identifying features such as gender, body shape or facial features. In addition, body scanners must not store or transmit any image or personal information.
Body scanners in Australian airports use millimetre-wave technology. This is similar to the technology used by mobile phone and wireless internet devices. No x-rays are used.
The Australian Government introduced a no opt-out policy, which means that if selected to undergo a body scan at an Australian airport, a person must undergo the scan to board their flight. This measure avoids the need for the type of invasive pat down search used in some countries overseas. Pat downs, which often require loosening or removal of some clothing, are uncomfortable, intrusive and have generated many serious complaints in other countries. For these reasons, the Australian Government decided that this screening measure will not be offered in Australia as an alternative to body scanning. Where a person cannot be screened by a body scanner (for example, a person in a wheelchair who is unable to stand unassisted), a combination of existing screening measures is used to clear the person.