Report on performance
4. Outcome 2 - Transport
Output 2.2.1 - Transport security, policy, programs and regulation
In 2008-09, the Department developed and released the Aviation Security Risk Context Statement, which provides an updated assessment of threat and risk to the Australian aviation sector, based on current strategic intelligence.
The Department delivered the second funding phase of the checked baggage screening initiative. Through this, 22 out of the 34 airports required to institute 100 per cent checked baggage screening received full or partial funding to purchase and install x-ray equipment with explosive detection system capability.
The Department conducted a review of aviation security screening, which examined issues such as the purpose of screening, service delivery and performance, national consistency, the passenger experience and workforce issues.
Government and industry continued to work together to develop a strategic directions paper which, when complete, will articulate a strategy for enhancing the security environment for oil and gas. The first part of the paper was finalised at the Oil and Gas Security Forum meeting in May 2009.
Output 2.2.1. is delivered through the work of:
- the Office of Transport Security, which delivers transport security policy, programs and regulation; and
- the Office of the Inspector of Transport Security which undertakes inquiries into transport security matters and offshore security matters as directed by the Minister.
In 2008-09, the output included the following administered programs:
- Aviation security enhancements - checked baggage screening;
- Aviation security enhancements - improving international aviation security;
- Aviation security enhancements - regional passenger screening; and
- Aviation security enhancements - screening for liquids, aerosols and gels.
The budget and actual expenditure for each administered program is listed in Appendix A.
Summary of performance
Table 4.2 summarises the Department's results in delivering Output 2.2.1 against the key performance indicators and targets published in the 2008-09 PBS.
|Key performance indicator||Target||Result|
Aviation security is addressed in the Government's Aviation Policy White Paper
The security component of the Green Paper stimulates public and industry debate which informs transport security development and White Paper policy.
The Department conducted consultative forums in all Australian capital cities and a number of regional centres to facilitate debate; the forums were well attended and supported by industry and members of the public. The Department also made presentations to the Over The Horizon Forum, Aviation Security Advisory Forum and Regional Industry Consultative Meeting. All issues outlined in the Aviation Green Paper were presented and debated at each event.
Any legislative or policy component of a transport security risk mitigation strategy is delivered efficiently and with the minimum impact on industry and the travelling public
Legislation and regulation development complies with Office of Best Practice Regulation standards.
Legislation and regulation development fully complied with the standards.
The number of last ports of call in the Asia Pacific subject to vulnerability assessments and measures to mitigate identified risks
All 45 last ports of call subject to a LAGs targeted partial assessment.
Eight full international last port of call assessments.
The Department established an Australian-based last port of call aviation security assessment team and commenced aviation security assessments of international airports with direct flights to Australia.
23 LAGs (liquids, aerosols and gels) assessments were conducted on a risk-assessed basis, focusing on higher priority locations, including return visits to non-compliant last ports of call.
Nine last port of call aviation security assessments were conducted. These include a comprehensive assessment of airport and airline aviation security operations based on Annex 17 to the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation. The outcomes directly informed aviation security capacity-building activities with East Timor, Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam.
Percentage of 'high risk' cases revisited for audit within 12 months (one year audit cycle)
95 per cent.
99 per cent at 30 June 2009
Percentage of 'medium risk' cases revisited for audit within 12 months (two year audit cycle)
50 per cent.
65 per cent at 30 June 2009
The website incorporates passenger security advice
Website implemented on schedule and budget.
Web feedback survey shows traveller satisfaction.
The departmental website was implemented on schedule and budget; the survey will be conducted in the first quarter of 2009-10.
Industry forums are consulted as required to inform policy and legislation development
Consultation occurs at intervals not exceeding 12 months.
The Aviation Security Advisory Forum and the Regional Industry Consultative Meeting each met four times to consult on a range of policy and legislation issues.
The Maritime Industry Consultative Forum and the Oil and Offshore Gas Security Forum each met twice to consult on a range of policy and legislation issues.
The Transport Security Working Group met three times and the Department continued to progress a range of surface transport security issues with state and territory government officials.
The Trusted Information Sharing Network Transport Infrastructure Assurance Advisory Group, consisting of the sub sector groups of aviation, maritime and surface, each met twice to provide owners and operators of critical infrastructure to share information on threats and vulnerabilities and appropriate measures and strategies to mitigate risk within an all-hazards approach.
Transport sectors are covered by consultation
All stakeholder industry sectors are consulted.
All relevant transport industry sectors were included in consultations in 2008-09.
Sector specific risk context statements and transport security advisories reviewed and issued in a timely fashion to inform industry and Government preventative security measures
Risk Context Statements are produced and disseminated to industry within three months of receipt of a Threat Assessment.
Transport Security Advisories are issued within 48 hours of receipt of significant intelligence.
A revised Aviation Security Risk Context Statement was developed and released.
A revised Land and Water-based Mass Passenger Transport Security Risk Context Statement was developed and subsequently released in August 2009.
Eleven Transport Security Advisories were produced and released.
Table 4.3 provides a summary of the results achieved by each of the programs administered under Output 2.2.1 against the key performance indicators and targets published in the 2008-09 PBS.
|Key performance indicators and targets|
|Applicable administered program||Key performance indicator
Efficient and effective management of administered programs
Programs are administered in accordance with relevant legislation, published guidelines and ANAO guidance.
Aviation security enhancements - checked baggage screening
The checked baggage screening initiative was managed on time, within budget and in accordance with relevant legislation, published guidelines and ANAO guidance. Twenty-two regional airports received funding to assist with the costs of purchasing and installing equipment.
Aviation security enhancements - improving international aviation security
The Department assisted countries in the Asia-Pacific region to strengthen their aviation security standards, by providing a range of policy, training and capital equipment assistance.
Aviation security enhancements - regional passenger screening
The regional passenger screening program was managed on time, within budget and in accordance with relevant legislation, published guidelines and ANAO guidance.
Training in the use of hand wands took place at 40 centralised locations around Australia and was offered to staff from 146 airports.
Aviation security enhancements - screening for liquids, aerosols and gels
The Advanced Technology Trials were completed on schedule and on budget. The report is due to be submitted in late October 2009.
Detailed report on performance
The following report is against the headings from the applicable output from the 2008-09 PBS. Please note that for this output, the section 'VII Other activities' has been added to address the activities of the Inspector of Transport Security.
I Security policy initiatives
The Department continued to enhance Australia's policies for aviation security, regional aviation and air freight security, maritime security, offshore oil and gas security, and surface transport security to create a transport system that is more secure against the threat of terrorism and unlawful acts.
Addressing aviation security
The Department conducted a wide-ranging Review of Aviation Security Screening, which examined issues such as the purpose of screening, service delivery and performance, national consistency, the passenger experience and screener workforce issues.
Arrangements for processing foreign visiting dignitaries at Australia's 11 major airports were improved by the introduction of a whole-of-government approach for aviation security, customs, immigration and quarantine. The Aviation Transport Security Regulations 2005 were amended to acknowledge the aviation security screening exemption status of heads of state, heads of government, and ministers responsible for foreign affairs.
Mitigating transport security vulnerabilities
The Department chairs the Aviation Security Advisory Forum Technology and Research Task Group, which comprises representatives of industry and government and focuses on prioritising aviation security vulnerabilities that may be mitigated through use of technology. The group met three times in 2008-09, developing desired capability documents for the areas of air cargo security, front-of-house security and verification and access control.
The Department completed an internal review of the Aviation Security Identification Card (ASIC) regime in 2008-09. The government is considering possible practical enhancements to the ASIC background checking scheme in the context of developing the Aviation White Paper. A post-implementation review of the Maritime Security Identification Card (MSIC) regime has also commenced and the Department expects to present the review's recommendations to the Minister in December 2009.
Developing a responsive legislation program
The successful passage of the Transport Security Amendment (2008 Measures No. 1) Bill 2008 in November 2008 will assist the Australian transport sector by providing greater clarity and certainty about security obligations.
Specifically, the legislation:
- provides for the establishment of nationally consistent mapping standards for maritime security plans;
- clarifies the security obligations on foreign regulated ships visiting an external Australian territory;
- provides the government with greater flexibility to respond to changes in Australia's security environment and the operational requirements of industry, by allowing maritime and offshore security plans to be approved for a period of up to five years (but no less than 12 months); and
- recognises current approaches to the documentation of security planning with the aviation and maritime industries.
New legislation was drafted which amends the Maritime Transport and Offshore Facilities Security Act 2003 and the Aviation Transport Security Act 2004.
The Maritime Transport and Offshore Facilities Security Amendment Regulations 2009 (No. 1) were made by the Governor General in Executive Council on 5 February 2009 and tabled in Parliament on 9 February 2009.
Specifically, the amendments:
- create a requirement for all ship security officers to meet specified international training standards;
- require all security officers to provide 24-hour contact details;
- allow offshore facility operators to request the Secretary of the Department to declare ship security zones around ships when in the vicinity of an offshore facility; and
- correct minor drafting anomalies.
Strengthening the air cargo supply chain
The Department completed a major project investigating the technical capability and potential industry impact of x-ray technology when used for screening air cargo. The project successfully identified the strengths and limitations of available technologies operating in relevant settings. The results of the trials will inform the Department's ongoing work to enhance security outcomes in the air cargo supply chain.
The Department undertook a scheduled review of the Regulated Air Cargo Agent (RACA) Security Training Framework, consulting extensively with industry, training providers and the quality assurance provider. The outcomes of the review will inform decisions about the future structure and funding arrangements of the training framework, which is a key aspect of the RACA scheme.
The Department significantly progressed the development and implementation of the Accredited Air Cargo Agent Scheme. The Aviation Transport Security Amendment Regulations 2008 (No. 2) commenced on 1 October 2008. Consultations on the detailed requirements of the scheme were concluded and a range of communications materials to assist industry uptake and compliance were designed and approved.
Applying 'over the horizon' forecasting
Twice in 2008-09, aviation industry participants met with senior departmental staff to discuss emerging issues likely to significantly impact on future aviation security settings and inform future policy work.
Exploring new technologies
As well as conducting the Advanced Technology Trials for liquids, aerosols and gels (LAGs) screening, the Department engaged with security technology communities in Australia and overseas to maintain awareness of emerging technologies that may have applications in transport security. The Department provided support for several Australian research projects.
The Department continued to engage with international partners in the ongoing development and harmonisation of performance criteria for security screening technology. Australia, Canada, the European Union and the United States reached agreement on a common threat and test list for LAGs. This is an important step in the continuing development of an Australian framework for the use of security screening technology in the transport security environment.
II International engagement
During 2008-09, the Department continued its international engagement through bilateral engagement, regional dialogues and transport security capacity-building activities in the Asia-Pacific region. Officers posted to Australian diplomatic missions in Indonesia, the Philippines and the United States worked collaboratively with departmental officers in Australia to assist with the delivery of these activities.
The Department also participated in the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade International Counter Terrorism Coordination Group, established to help strengthen counter-terrorism cooperation and coordination in the region. Through the group, the Department supports and contributes to Australia's whole-of-government counter-terrorism agenda.
Engagement with multilateral institutions
The Department engaged with a number of international organisations dealing with transport security issues during 2008-09.
- The Department supported the conduct of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Transportation Ministerial Meeting, held in the Philippines in April 2009 as chair.
- The Department continued as a member of the security sub group of the Aviation Experts Group of the APEC Transportation Working Group.
- The Department continued as vice-chair of the security subgroup of the Maritime Experts Group of the APEC Transportation Working Group. This included participating in the APEC Port Security Visit Program in South Korea and Japan in April 2009, and hosting port visits under the program, in Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin and Townsville, in May 2009.
- The Department was a member of the Pacific Maritime Association and provided maritime security technical assistance and advice on a range of port security issues to countries in the South Pacific.
- The Department worked in close cooperation with the Pacific Aviation Safety Office and the ICAO to deliver quality assurance training in the South Pacific.
Australia's engagement with Canada and the United States on transport security matters strengthened in 2008-09. The Department worked closely with the United States Transportation Security Administration (TSA) to harmonise transport security regulatory approaches, and to improve security outcomes across all transport modes. The Department also drove efforts to ensure compatibility between Australia and the TSA in capacity-building efforts in the Asia-Pacific region.
The Department continued to play a leading role in facilitating an informal mechanism for high-level discussions between Australia, Canada, the European Commission and the United States. These strategic discussions focused on global transport security issues and helped shape international transport security settings. These high-level discussions were recently expanded to include discussion on maritime security issues including matters relating to passenger screening. The Department is working with its international maritime transport security counterparts to identify, share and progress the development of good practice guidelines on aspects of passenger ship and ferry security screening procedures.
The Department participated in a range of other international meetings providing opportunities for significant knowledge sharing and collaborative projects, including cooperation with the United States Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Organisation.
Cooperation in the region
During 2008-09, the Department continued to assist countries in the Asia-Pacific region to enhance their compliance with international transport security standards, including the International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code and the ICAO Annex 17 standards. Department officers posted to the Australian embassies in Jakarta and Manila played a significant role in facilitating the delivery of transport security capacity-building activities in the region.
In South-East Asia, the Department:
- continued to work collaboratively with Indonesia to strengthen transport security in the region - one of the main avenues for this cooperation was the third Australia-Indonesia Bilateral Aviation Security Forum, hosted by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation in Jakarta in February 2009;
- co-chaired the inaugural Asia-Pacific Aviation Security Regulator Forum held in Singapore in February 2009;
- contributed to three workshops of the Inter-Agency Border Strengthening Initiative, held in Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand in 2009. These workshops provided exercises on border control and maritime security matters, and were aimed at fostering communication and cooperation between agencies charged with customs, immigration and transport security functions; and
- utilised Last Ports of Call (LPOC) inspections to inform aviation security capacity building and engagement activities in Indonesia, East Timor, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam and will inform future capacity-building and regional engagement activities.
The very successful AusAID-funded Philippines Port Security Capacity Building Project concluded in April 2009, after a lifespan of almost five years. In 2008-09, project activities focused on assisting a range of Filipino agencies to improve their port security capacity, and delivered a range of international-standard training courses to build capacity in port security.
To assist its Philippines Government counterparts to build capacity, the Department delivered several complementary outcomes to the Philippines Office for Transportation Security, including:
- logistics support to the newly established ICAO aviation security training facility in Manila; and
- an intensive aviation security project for Philippines Government officials, conducted from February to June 2009 which included the delivery of a range of international standard aviation security courses.
In 2008-09, the Department delivered maritime security training to both Indonesian and Filipino counterparts as part of the Australian Government's East ASEAN Initiative, which aims to promote cooperation in the countries of the Association of South East Asian Nations. This maritime security pilot project established the first cooperative working relationship between Indonesian and Filipino government counterparts on ship and port security. In the South Pacific, the Department continued to work closely with regional governments to enhance port security and aviation security capacity, including through an exchange program for regulatory staff with Tonga and assistance to Samoa and Vanuatu to develop aviation security capability.
The joint Australia-New Zealand aviation security capacity-building activity in Solomon Islands concluded in 2008-09. This cooperative project provided for the installation of security screening equipment and also for aviation security training to airport security staff at Honiara International Airport.
III Auditing and compliance
The Department undertakes regulatory activities to ensure compliance with Australia's transport security legislation. The Department conducts audit and compliance activities based on risk assessments of the regulated industry sectors and their participants.
In 2008-09, the Department conducted:
- 1,788 compliance activities in the aviation industry - these activities focused on the regulatory compliance of Australia's major international airports, screened airports, international airlines, Regulated Air Cargo Agents and major domestic airlines, and collectively comprised 66 per cent of overall compliance activity; and
- 931 compliance activities in the maritime industry - these activities focused on the regulatory compliance of Australia's major sea ports, major providers of maritime facilities and Australian vessels.
To improve its regulatory approval processes, the Department has invested in the Transport Security Program Improvement project. The outputs of the project, which are expected to increase the efficiency of the Department's regulatory approval activities, will be implemented in 2009-10. Key directions being adopted will include an increased emphasis on the quality of risk assessments together with improved guidance to assist industry participants to develop their transport security plans.
The Department issued two enforcement orders and an infringement notice during 2008-09, all in respect of the same matter. Subsequent to issuing these, the industry participants complied, and the enforcement orders were withdrawn.
IV Delivery of security-related projects
The Department contributes to the wellbeing of all Australians by making Australia's transport system more secure against the threat of terrorism and other unlawful acts. Significant enhancements to transport security were made in 2008-09.
Screening for liquids, aerosols and gels
The Advanced Technology Trials were designed to evaluate the technical and operational performance of screening technologies that are able to detect explosives in LAGs. The trials were successfully completed in 2008-09, by the Department in collaboration with the Defence Science Technology Organisation, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation and the Centre for Intelligent Systems Research.
Twenty-four separate pieces of screening technology were technically evaluated, eight technologies were selected for operational trialling, and a sophisticated discrete event simulation model was developed and populated with real-time data to provide information on the impacts on passenger facilitation and costs related to deploying new technologies. The findings from these trials will be used to inform future decisions relating to the role of advanced screening technologies in the aviation passenger screening environment. The report will be finalised by 31 October 2009.
Checked baggage screening
Under the second phase of the checked baggage screening initiative announced in the 2007-08 Budget, screening of checked baggage through explosive detection system capable x-ray equipment commenced at all regional airports servicing regular public transport jet services from 1 December 2008.
During 2008-09, a total of $10 million was provided to 22 regional airports to assist with the costs of purchasing and installing x-ray equipment.
Regional passenger screening
During 2008-09, the Department conducted a tender process to engage a service provider (Vast Academy) for the delivery of hand wand training at regional airports. Training took place at 40 centralised locations around Australia and was offered to staff at 146 airports.
V Effective communication strategies
The Department engages with key stakeholders, including representatives of the commercial sector, to explore a broad range of operational, policy and regulatory issues relating to transport security. Where appropriate, working groups are formed to address specific issues identified at the consultative forums.
The effectiveness of security communications was reviewed in 2008-09, and an overarching communications strategy was developed. The strategy is expected to be implemented during 2009-10.
The Department's traveller-friendly website, TravelSECURE, was launched on 10 June 2009. TravelSECURE is an easy-to-use resource that consolidates traveller and transport security information, videos and fact sheets in one easy-to-find place. The site includes information about prohibited items, passenger and baggage screening and LAGs restrictions, as well as recommendations about travelling with children, laptops, medicines or sports equipment.
Key pages from TravelSECURE have been translated into Arabic, Chinese, Japanese and Spanish to enhance their accessibility.
Consultation was achieved through industry consultative forums for all transport modes for which the Department has regulatory responsibility, the Intergovernmental Transport Security Working Group, and interdepartmental forums.
The Department took part in the meetings of major industry forums described in Table 4.4.
|Maritime Industry Security Consultative Forum|
The Maritime Industry Consultative Forum provides an opportunity for the Department to outline security initiatives to industry, and for industry to provide feedback on these and other maritime security matters. Membership is drawn from maritime industry participants, industry associations, and employee representative organisations. The forum is supported by a number of working groups which advance detailed discussions on issues such as passenger ship security and maritime security guards.
|Aviation Security Advisory Forum|
The Aviation Security Advisory Forum (ASAF) provides a forum for representatives of the commercial aviation sector to meet with government and explore a broad range of operational, legal, policy and regulatory issues relating to aviation security. The ASAF is a high-level forum, with most members representing major industry participants such as designated airports and large airlines. The ASAF has several working groups which include government and industry representatives and undertake detailed work on strategic issues.
|Regional Industry Consultative Meeting|
The Regional Industry Consultative Meeting complements the ASAF by providing an opportunity for smaller aviation industry participants (such as regional airports and smaller airlines) to consult on aviation security matters.
|Oil and Gas Security Forum|
The Oil and Gas Security Forum (OGSF) is a subgroup of the Energy Infrastructure Advisory Group under the Trusted Information Sharing Network for Critical Infrastructure Protection. Established in 2008, the forum brings together representatives from the Australian Government and state and territory governments, as well as industry participants from the Australian oil and gas sector, to improve the resilience of the sector. In 2008-09, the OGSF finalised the first part of a strategic directions paper which describes how oil and gas fits within Australia's economy and energy sector supply chain. It also provides information on risks and threats to Australia's oil and gas sector and the current mitigation arrangements. Representatives at the May 2009 forum also discussed security issues relevant to the offshore oil and gas sector.
|Transport Infrastructure Assurance Advisory Group|
The Department supports the Transport Infrastructure Assurance Advisory Group, which encompasses aviation, maritime and surface subgroups. The group is part of the Trusted Information Sharing Network for Critical Infrastructure Protection, and enables industry and government to share 'all hazards' information and insights to build resilience within the transport sector.
In 2008-09, the subgroups explored issues around pandemic planning and preparedness, including input into the Critical Infrastructure Provider Pandemic Key Statements and Guidelines.
Under the Intergovernmental Agreement on Surface Transport Security, the Australian Government works closely with state and territory governments to develop consistent and coordinated approaches to surface transport security. The Department co-chairs the Transport Security Working Group, in which representatives from all jurisdictions work cooperatively to develop and coordinate transport policy responses to the threat of terrorism and unlawful acts which have been identified as security priorities in the Intergovernmental Agreement.
In 2008-09, the working group reviewed and updated the National Surface Transport Security Strategy for consideration by the Australian Transport Council in late 2009. The group conducted a discussion exercise aimed at strengthening communication arrangements in the case of a transport disruptive event.
VI Analysis of available intelligence
The Department continued to receive and analyse a wide range of information and intelligence relevant to transport security. This information forms the foundation of the Department's risk-based transport security regulatory framework.
The Department's 2009 Aviation Security Risk Context Statement was released in February 2009, providing an updated assessment of threat and risk in the aviation sector based on current strategic intelligence. During 2008-09, the Department produced four aviation security quarterly reports and 11 transport security advisories to assist industry to understand the threat and risk context of their sector and to develop and implement appropriate preventive security measures and priorities. The Department produced formal threat and security risk briefs to assist in issue-specific policy development, and incorporated intelligence advice into ongoing policy and business process development.
The Department collected, investigated and analysed maritime and aviation security event and incident reporting to assist in identifying and mitigating security vulnerabilities within the aviation and maritime transport sectors. The analysis of this information was used to support the development of appropriate preventive security measures.
The Department also provided briefings and presentations in various forums as part of an ongoing stakeholder engagement process to keep industry, other government agencies and foreign partners informed of strategic transport security threats, risks and vulnerabilities. The Department's participation in threat-related information sharing and policy development forums included supporting the:
- Airports Intelligence Joint Working Group;
- Australian Government Counter-Terrorism Committee;
- Australian Government Counter-Terrorism Policy Committee;
- Homeland and Border Security Policy Coordination Group;
- Heads of Commonwealth Operational Law Enforcement Agencies Serious and Organised Crime Working Group;
- Strategic Border Management Plan Working Group;
- Border Protection Working Group;
- Secretaries Transport Security Working Group;
- Australian Government Transport Security Policy Committee;
- National Counter-Terrorism Committee;
- National Security Committee;
- Secretaries Committee on National Security; and
- Threat and Risk Assessment Working Group.
The Department provided the secretariat for the Australian Government Transport Security Policy Committee and the Secretaries Transport Security Working Group.
The Department's Security Analysis Liaison Officer Network provided threat and risk context advice to industry stakeholders and support to the Department through strong engagement with local law enforcement, security and border control agencies. This included taking part in meetings of the Joint Airport Intelligence Group and regional counter-terrorism training initiatives such as the Regional Aviation Training and Exercise Program.
VII Other activities
The Inspector of Transport Security Act 2006 allows the Inspector of Transport Security to conduct independent 'no blame' inquiries and make recommendations in relation to transport security and offshore security matters.
Under the Act, the Minister for Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government directs the Inspector of Transport Security to inquire into major transport security incidents, circumstances that suggest a systemic failure or weakness in transport security arrangements, or matters that may have implications for transport security arrangements in Australia.
The Inspector of Transport Security completed two inquiries in 2008-09.
- The inspector completed an inquiry into the security arrangements for intrastate, privately operated, large commercial passenger ferries, and submitted the report to the Minister on 3 November 2008. The report was presented to state and territory transport ministers at the Australian Transport Council meeting on 7 November 2008.
- On 15 December 2008, the Minister directed the inspector to conduct an internal inquiry into the document-handling procedures related to the Aviation Green Paper. The inspector completed the inquiry and handed the report to the Minister on 2 February 2009.
In January 2009, the Minister directed the Inspector of Transport Security to inquire into international maritime piracy and armed robbery at sea, and the potential impact of these activities on maritime shipping and trade to and from Australia, and on the safety and security of ships' crews and cargo. The inquiry is being conducted in cooperation with international agencies and industry and government stakeholders in Australia and overseas.