Appendix F : Australian Transport Safety Bureau safety recommendations

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Status of Safety Recommendations Issued by the Australian Transport Safety Bureau in 2000–01

Aviation

Recommendations issued during the course of an investigation deal with the immediate safety of flight issues and are prefixed with the letters IR to indicate an interim recommendation. Recommendations usually incorporated in a final report are prefixed with the letter R.

Under existing memoranda of understanding, both the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) and Airservices Australia have agreed to respond to the Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB) within 60 days of the date of issue of any safety recommendations. No other organisations are obliged to respond to ATSB safety recommendations. The ATSB issued 73 recommendations and has received 51 responses, of which 23 have been accepted and nine have yet to be assessed.

The status of the following recommendations is:

  • open, indicating that the ATSB is continuing to monitor actions to address the recommendations;
  • closed, indicating that the implementation of the recommendation will not be pursued; or
  • no response had been received from the organisation targeted by the recommendation at 30 June 2001.
Recommendation Issue Date Receiving Organisation Response Due Date Status of Response
R20000042
The ATSB recommends that Raytheon Aircraft review the Engine Bleed-Air Warning System post-maintenance procedures to include a functional system test to verify that the failure warning correctly annunciates the failed system.
22-Dec-2000 Raytheon Aircraft 20-Feb-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20000043
The ATSB recommends that Raytheon Aircraft ensure some positive means of preventing the possibility of system cross-connection of the bleed air failure pressure transmitters.
22-Dec-2000 Raytheon Aircraft 20-Feb-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20000044
The ATSB recommends that the United States Federal Aviation Administration monitor the aircraft manufacturer to ensure that this [R20000043] safety deficiency is addressed.
22-Dec-2000 United States Federal Aviation Administration 20-Feb-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20000096
The ATSB recommends that CASA review the assessment process for the issue of a radiotelephone operator certificate of proficient or equivalent, as specified by Civil Aviation Regulations subregulation 83A(2) and subregulation 83E(1)(a), and establish competency standards for those applicants for whom English is a second language, especially in respect of a candidate's ability to effectively communicate and comprehend traffic information.
08-Sep-2000 CASA 07-Nov-2000 Open
R20000115
The ATSB recommends that Mobil Oil Australia review its understanding of process interrelationships and of its ability to control processes when considering planned and unplanned changes to a process within a refinery unit.
30-Mar-2001 Mobil Oil Australia 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001 *
R20000116
The ATSB recommends that Mobil Oil Australia review and clarify its procedures for managing refinery units during abnormal operations.
30-Mar-2001 Mobil Oil Australia 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001 *
R20000117
The ATSB recommends that Mobil Oil Australia review its processes for assessing the reliability of individual components within a refinery and their potential to contribute to undesired outcomes.
30-Mar-2001 Mobil Oil Australia 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001 *
R20000118
The ATSB recommends that Mobil Oil Australia review its procedures to ensure that in safety critical areas, decisions are fully implemented and progress in following up recommendations and implementing decisions is regularly reported and reviewed.
30-Mar-2001 Mobil Oil Australia 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001 *
R20000119
The ATSB recommends that Mobil Oil Australia establish, as a part of its management of change process, a mechanism for systematically identifying undesirable outcomes that should be considered in hazard or risk assessment processes.
30-Mar-2001 Mobil Oil Australia 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001 *
R20000120
The ATSB recommends that Mobil Oil Australia review the effects, as contaminants of the end product, of all chemicals that could be in the process stream, with particular attention to process chemicals that are introduced during the manufacturing process. As part of the hazard assessment processes, the review should include the expected products of reaction as possible contaminants of the end product.
30-Mar-2001 Mobil Oil Australia 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001 *
R20000121
The ATSB recommends that Mobil Oil Australia develop quality assurance processes comprising practical validation of end products to ensure that they are not inadvertently rendered hazardous.
30-Mar-2001 Mobil Oil Australia 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001 *
R20000122
The ATSB recommends that Mobil Oil Australia review its processes for managing the contractual arrangements for contracts that have the potential to significantly affect its fuel quality and safety objectives.
30-Mar-2001 Mobil Oil Australia 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001 *
R20000123
The ATSB recommends that Mobil Oil Australia review the effectiveness of its processes to ensure that it fulfils the requirements of its accredited quality assurance system, including its processes for the management of contractual relationships.
30-Mar-2001 Mobil Oil Australia 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001 *
R20000124
The ATSB recommends that the American Society for Testing and Materials include a description of the limitations of applicability of standard D910-97 in the scope of the standard. American No
30-Mar-2001 Society forTesting and Materials 29-May-2001 response received at 30 June 2001
R20000125
The ATSB recommends that the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (UK) include a description of the limitations of applicability of Defence Standard 91- 90 issued 8 May 1996, in the scope of the standard.
30-Mar-2001 Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (UK) 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20000126
The ATSB recommends that the American Society for Testing and Materials review standard D910—97 in relation to the maximum permissible quantities of undesired compounds in Avgas, either individually or collectively.
30-Mar-2001 American Society for Testing and Materials 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20000127
The ATSB recommends that the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (UK) review Defence Standard 91- 90 issued 8 May 1996, in relation to the maximum permissible quantities of undesired compounds in Avgas, either individually or collectively.
30-Mar-2001 Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (UK) 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20000128
The ATSB recommends that the American Society for Testing and Materials develop and promulgate definitions for necessary physical and chemical properties of aviation fuels that are not currently defined, whether these are expected to be tested as a part of batch specification or not.
30-Mar-2001 American Society for Testing and Materials 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20000129
The ATSB recommends that the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (UK) develop and promulgate definitions for necessary physical and chemical properties of aviation fuels that are not currently defined, whether these are expected to be tested as a part of batch specification or not.
30-Mar-2001 Defence Evaluation And Research Agency (UK) 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20000130
The ATSB recommends that CASA identify and adopt an appropriate specification for each grade of fuel that is approved for use in Australia, or in aircraft on the Australian civil register.
30-Mar-2001 CASA 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20000131
The ATSB recommends that CASA, either by itself or in cooperation with other organisations, develop a process to satisfy itself that fuel that is fit for purpose is consistently supplied to aircraft.
30-Mar-2001 CASA 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20000132
The ATSB recommends that CASA develop appropriate lines of communication to ensure that it is made aware in a timely manner of information relating to the management of situations related to fuel quality that could affect the safety of flight.
30-Mar-2001 CASA 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20000133
The ATSB recommends that CASA ensure that prior to any significant devolution or change in regulatory process, appropriate measures are taken to ensure that aviation safety is not diminished.
30-Mar-2001 CASA 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20000181
The ATSB recommends that CASA mandate the fitment and use of an Airborne Collision Avoidance System in all aircraft with a passenger seating capacity of 10-30 seats engaged in Regular Public Transport operations, and set a timetable for the introduction of such equipment.
24-Apr-2001 CASA 23-Jun-2001 Closed
R20000182
The ATSB recommends that CASA consider the requirement for the fitment and use of a suitable Airborne Collision Avoidance System in aircraft engaged in the carriage of passengers for hire or reward in other than Regular Public Transport operations.
24-Apr-2001 CASA 23-Jun-2001 Closed
R20000183
The ATSB recommends that CASA expand the requirements for the carriage and activation of transponders with the object of maximising the effectiveness of airborne collision avoidance systems.
24-Apr-2001 CASA 23-Jun-2001 Open
R20000184
The ATSB recommends that CASA review the current level of education among all levels of the industry with a view to maximising transponder activation in all airspace.
24-Apr-2001 CASA 23-Jun-2001 Open
R20000186
The ATSB recommends that CASA review its relationship with other regulatory bodies to clarify the limits of their respective regulatory powers and responsibilities with respect to aviation fuels, to ensure that aviation safety issues are effectively regulated.
30-Mar-2001 CASA 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20000187
The ATSB recommends that Workcover Victoria review its relationship with other regulatory bodies to clarify the limits of their respective regulatory powers and responsibilities with respect to aviation fuels, to ensure that aviation safety issues are effectively regulated.
30-Mar-2001 Workcover Victoria 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20000198
The ATSB recommends that CASA ensure that any company registered for fare-paying passenger operations has standard operating procedures that are adequate for self-separation assurance.
24-Apr-2001 CASA 23-Jun-2001 Open
R20000199
The ATSB recommends that CASA review its educational program for all levels of pilot licences to improve pilot understanding of separation assurance techniques.
24-Apr-2001 CASA 23-Jun-2001 Open
R20000231
The ATSB recommends that the FAA and JAA review the design requirements for high-capacity aircraft to ensure the integrity of the cabin interphone and PA systems, particularly with respect to cabin/flight deck communications, in the event of runway overruns and other relatively common types of events which result in landing gear and lower fuselage damage.
18-Apr-2001 FAA & JAA 17-Jun-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20000234
The ATSB recommends that CASA consider the following issues as requirements for operators when developing new emergency procedures training legislation:
  • how flight crew should gather and evaluate relevant information and make a decision regarding which type of emergency response is most suitable;
  • how cabin crew should communicate with each other and the flight deck in emergency situations (in terms of technique, terminology, and methods to ensure that accurate information reaches the flight deck);
  • how cabin crew should communicate during an emergency on the ground when there is a loss of PA and interphone communications;
  • how cabin crew should systematically and regularly identify problematic situations in an aircraft during an emergency (including guidelines on what types of information are most important and ensuring that all areas of the aircraft are examined);
  • leadership and coordination functions of cabin crew supervisors during an emergency situation—for example, how the supervisors should assess the situation (particularly in circumstances that had not been clearly defined), assign roles and responsibilities amongst the cabin crew and coordinate the gathering and dissemination of information;
  • how cabin crew should effectively obtain information from passengers concerning safety-related issues;
  • how cabin crew should effectively use language and assertiveness for crowd control and management of passenger movement towards exits during emergency situations, as well as passenger control outside the aircraft; and
  • that cabin crew supervisors are provided with appropriate resources to ensure that they can effectively communicate with other areas of the cabin during emergency situations (e.g. providing the supervisor with ready access to an assist crew member at their assigned location).
18-Apr-2001 CASA 17-Jun-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20000235
The ATSB recommends that CASA review the intent of CAO 48 to ensure that operators consider all duties associated with a pilot's employment (including managerial and administrative duties) when designing flight and duty time schedules, and that this requirement is not restricted to situations where there are one or two pilots.
18-Apr-2001 CASA 17-Jun-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20000238
The ATSB recommends that CASA consider widening its existing skill base within the compliance Branch to ensure that CASA audit teams have expertise in all relevant areas, including human factors and management processes.
18-Apr-2001 CASA 17-Jun-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20000239
The ATSB recommends that CASA ensure that all Australian operators of high-capacity jet aircraft have in place procedures and training to ensure flight crews are adequately equipped for operations on wet/contaminated runways.
18-Apr-2001 CASA 17-Jun-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20000249
The ATSB recommends that CASA ensure that Civil Aviation Orders provide for adequate emergency and life-saving equipment for the protection of fare-paying passengers during over-water flights where an aircraft is operating beyond the distance from which it could reach the shore with all engines inoperative.
30-Oct-2000 CASA 29-Dec-2000 Open
R20000300
The ATSB recommends that CASA, in conjunction with Airservices Australia, review the existing airspace model with a view to enhancing conflict recognition and resolution for fare-paying passenger operations to/from non-controlled aerodromes.
24-Apr-2001 CASA 23-Jun-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20010015
The ATSB recommends that CASA consider revising CASA Safety Aircraft Surveillance Report 604 form to require a response date for acquittal of discrepancies.
09-Mar-2001 CASA 08-May-2001 Open
R20010016
The ATSB recommends that CASA consider revising CASA Safety Trend Indicator form to indicate organisational non-acquittal of Aircraft Surveillance Report ASSP 604 forms within the last 12 months.
09-Mar-2001 CASA 08-May-2001 Open
R20010017
The ATSB recommends that the Department of the Treasury review its relationship with other regulatory bodies to clarify the limits of their respective regulatory powers and responsibilities with respect to aviation fuels, to ensure that aviation safety issues are effectively regulated.
30-Mar-2001 Department of the Treasury 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20010018
The ATSB recommends that the ACCC review its relationship with other regulatory bodies to clarify the limits of their respective regulatory powers and responsibilities with respect to aviation fuels, to ensure that aviation safety issues are effectively regulated.
30-Mar-2001 Australian Competition and Consumer Commission 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20010019
The ATSB recommends that Consumer and Business Affairs Victoria review its relationship with other regulatory bodies to clarify the limits of their respective regulatory powers and responsibilities with respect to aviation fuels, to ensure that aviation safety issues are effectively regulated.
30-Mar-2001 Consumer and Business Affairs Victoria 29-May-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20010032
The ATSB recommends, where possible, maintenance organisations should avoid performing the same task on each element of critical multiple redundant systems on airline aircraft during the same maintenance visit, whether or not the aircraft is being maintained in accordance with ETOPS requirements.
16-Feb-2001 Maintenance organisations 17-Apr-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20010033
The ATSB recommends that CASA ensure through hours of duty limits, or other means, that maintenance organisations manage the work schedules of staff in a manner that reduces the likelihood of those staff suffering from excessive levels of fatigue while on duty.
16-Feb-2001 CASA 17-Apr-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20010034
The ATSB recommends that CASA ensure that Aircraft Maintenance Engineers and Licensed Aircraft Maintenance Engineers are provided with appropriate recurrent training.
16-Feb-2001 CASA 17-Apr-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20010035
The ATSB recommends that maintenance organisations introduce clear error-reporting policies in order to encourage staff to report incidents related to human error. Such policies should set out in advance the consequences which will result should maintenance personnel report that they have made an error.
16-Feb-2001 Maintenance Organisations 17-Apr-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20010036
The ATSB recommends that maintenance organisations ensure that engineering personnel receive regular feedback on maintenance incidents in order to learn from such incidents.
16-Feb-2001 Maintenance Organisations 17-Apr-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20010037
The ATSB recommends that CASA, when conducting surveillance of maintenance organisations, consider the existence of an error reporting policy as a positive safety indicator.
16-Feb-2001 CASA 17-Apr-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20010038
The ATSB recommends that CASA require Aircraft Maintenance Engineers and Licensed Aircraft Maintenance Engineers to undergo appropriate human factors training addressing non-technical performance in areas such as coordination, communication and the management of time pressures.
16-Feb-2001 CASA 17-Apr-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20010039
The ATSB recommends that maintenance organisations ensure that ground equipment, tooling and spares holdings are appropriate, and that there are systems in place to ensure that maintenance equipment is adequately maintained.
16-Feb-2001 Maintenance Organisations 17-Apr-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20010040
The ATSB recommends that CASA, when conducting surveillance of maintenance organisations, ensure that ground equipment, tooling and spares holdings are appropriate, and that there are systems in place to ensure that equipment is adequately maintained.
16-Feb-2001 CASA 17-Apr-2001 No response received at 30 June 2001
R20010083
The ATSB recommends that CASA: (i) require the fitment of approved Wire Strike Protection System kits for all helicopters engaged in low flying activities for which a kit exists; and (ii) that only agricultural spray kits compatible with Wire Strike Protection Systems be approved for fitment to these helicopters. This recommendation was previously issued by Australian Transport Safety Bureau (formely Bureau of Air Safety Investigation) as R19950120.
05-Apr-2001 CASA 04-Jun-2001 Open
R20010092
The ATSB recommends that CASA take steps to ensure that the continuing airworthiness requirements for Australian registered Class A aircraft are not compromised through any lack of action by the national airworthiness authorities of other countries.
12-Apr-2001 CASA 11-June-2001 Open
R20010093
The ATSB recommends that CASA take responsibility to ensure that all service bulletins relevant to Australian registered Class A aircraft are received and assessed for safety of flight implications. The assessment process should ensure that those aspects affecting the safety of flight of Class A aircraft are implemented or mandated as necessary and that appropriate systems are in place to ensure compliance.
12-Apr-2001 CASA 11-June-2001 Open

*Responses have been received in July 2001.

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Heavy Vehicles

On 2 December 1998, the Minister announced a consultant study to investigate claims of vibration and stability problems from a number of owners of heavy vehicles. Roaduser International conducted the consultancy; its final report was tabled in the Senate on 18 April 2000.

The Minister asked the ATSB to monitor and report on the implementation of the recommendations made in the Roaduser International report. These 16 recommendations, listed at the end of this status report, are divided into three broad categories:

  • action to be taken on specific vehicles (recommendations 1, 2, 5 and 10);
  • improvements to vehicle design practice and standards (3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 12); and
  • areas of possible further research (11, 13, 14, 15 and 16).

Status summary for action to be taken on specific vehicles (recommendations 1, 2, 5 and 10)

The first set of recommendations was sent to the relevant vehicle manufacturers on 18 April 2000. Vehicle manufacturers, with the cooperation of owners, are the only group able to rectify the identified problems associated with specific vehicles. The current position with regard to the specific vehicles identified in the report is that:

  • Kenworth has provided evidence of testing in order to substantiate its claims that F1 is safe for operational use. This information was provided on Friday, 22 December 2000. No substantiation has been received in relation to vehicle F3.
  • The ATSB has written to the current owners of both F4 and F26. A copy of the Roaduser report was sent to them drawing their attention to the recommendations and noting that the ATSB understands they have been contacted by Mack and are satisfied with the way Mack is dealing with the recommendations. The ATSB is awaiting confirmation of this position from the current owners of vehicles F4 and F26.
  • Ford and Hendrickson have provided technical clarification on how the modifications to F6 have addressed the safety deficiencies identified in the report.

The ATSB has selected an appropriately qualified consultant to review all evidence provided in response to this first set of the reports recommendations. The ATSB has requested that a final report be provided by mid-July 2001.

Action on improvements to vehicle design practice and standards (recommendations 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 12)

These recommendations for improving vehicle design practice and standards will be implemented by manufacturers, as well as regulatory bodies, including the National Road Transport Commission (NRTC), State/Territory authorities and regulatory areas within DOTARS. In addition, they have been sent to the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries. Progress is continuing with this set of recommendations, which addresses gaps in design and manufacturing knowledge in some areas of vehicle behaviour, including oversteering, vibration and bump steer. The current status is:

  • The Technical Liaison Group, which includes representatives from manufacturer, industry and regulatory bodies (Commonwealth and State/Territory), considered means of addressing recommendations relating to improvements in vehicle design standards and practices (Recommendations 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12) at its meeting of 14 March 2001.
  • It was agreed that there were areas of commonality between the Roaduser recommendations and measures being considered by the Performance-based Standards (PBS) project currently being undertaken by the NRTC and Austroads. Therefore some of the performance measures and methods of assessment proposed by the PBS project may provide input for the development of possible regulatory or other approaches to address the recommendations. The use of PBS research can be further considered once the next phase of PBS, assessing the current Australian fleet against proposed performance measures, is under way.

The NRTC will be conducting workshops to obtain feedback from interested parties following the release of proposed performance measures to be used in the Portfolio Budget Statement.

Areas of possible future research (recommendations 11, 13, 14, 15 and 16)

The third set of recommendations relates to areas of possible further research. These recommendations are being reviewed by DOTARS and will also be the subject of consultation with relevant groups, including the National Road Transport Commission, Austroads and the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries. These recommendations have also been drawn to the attention of the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Communications, Transport and the Arts, which is inquiring into fatigue. The current status is:

  • The ATSB commissioned ARRB Transport Research Ltd to determine the state of knowledge on the extent to which vibration in heavy truck cabs:
  • contributes to driver fatigue and represents a safety hazard; and
  • constitutes a health hazard to truck drivers.

The ARRB Transport Research Ltd final report was published in July 2001.

Roaduser International Report Recommendations

Recommendations for action to be taken on specific vehicles (recommendations 1, 2, 5 and 10)

1. Action should be taken to identify and evaluate prime movers which have safety deficiencies similar to those identified for vehicle F6; such deficiencies in handling stability relate principally to drive axle suspension characteristics, but the evaluation process should consider other influences such as steering axle suspension understeer inherent in prime mover designs.
2. Such vehicles, including vehicle F6 and other Ford LT 9513 prime movers fitted with Hendrickson WD-2 460 suspension, should be rectified through appropriate means of mechanical intervention.
5. Action should be taken to advise the owners of prime movers F1, F3, F4 and F26 concerning the test results in relation to increased steering effort required and the need for rectification or restriction to certain types of operation.
10. Action should be taken to advise the owners of prime movers F1, F3, F4 and F6 concerning the ride quality test results and to recommend rectification of the vibration problems. The manufacturers of these vehicles should also be advised of the test results and the recommendation for rectification.

Recommendations on improvements to vehicle design practice and standards (recommendations 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 12)

3. Action should be taken to ensure that manufacturers do not build future vehicles that exhibit the non-understeering behaviour identified in this report.
4 The use of regulation or other means should be considered for controlling certain characteristics of suspensions fitted to the drive axles of prime movers, with regard to their influence on handling quality and the maintenance of understeering behaviour in particular.
6. Action should be taken to develop robust front axle bump steer test methods and to develop reliable and predictable means of rectification. The truck maintenance community should be educated concerning the importance of bump steer and appropriate means of assessment and rectification where problems are identified.
7.

Prime mover makes and models with inherent geometric bump steer, to a level which makes them unduly sensitive to the fitment of softer front springs, should be identified. Once robust test methods have been defined, the cooperation of all truck manufacturers should be sought to provide test results to a national government agency and to provide advice on rectification. Education material should then be prepared addressing:

  • the safety relevance of undesirable bump steer;
  • recommended test and assessment methods;
  • prime mover makes and models with higher propensity to bump steer and sensitivity to modifications;
  • recommended means of rectification, taking into account potential adverse effects on vibration levels; and
  • best maintenance practice to minimise bump steer effects.
8. The use of regulation or other means should be considered to identify and control certain characteristics of suspensions and steering systems fitted to the front axles of prime movers, with regard to their influence on unwanted steering disturbances, and bump steer in particular.
9. Publicity of the drive axle handling deficiencies and front axle disturbance characteristics identified in this study should be undertaken to assist in identifying existing problem vehicles, including those modified in service.
12. In the development of remedial actions, standards, vehicle designs, retrofits and modifications, due attention must be paid to the interaction between vibration and handling, so that actions in one area will not adversely affect performance in the other area. Prime mover manufacturers and vehicle repairers should pay increased attention to the important and sensitive interaction between the front suspension design, excessive ride vibrations and unwanted steering effects, particularly where the steering geometry involves bump steer effects.

Areas of possible future research (recommendations 11, 13, 14, 15 and 16)

11.

Joint industry-government action should be launched to develop effective means of contributing to the management of driver health risks in relation to excessive prime mover vibration, including:

  • the availability of seat vibration test information in a consistent format; and
  • the development of general guidelines for acceptable vibration measures in a range of operating environments.
13. Given the importance of driver fatigue in truck safety and ongoing research in this area, it is recommended that the relationship between levels of seat vibration, driver fatigue and driving hours be further investigated.
14. Given the importance of improving truck driver occupational health and safety, research should be initiated into the health effects of vibration on truck drivers and the development of standards for acceptable levels of seat vibration, taking into account operating conditions, speed environment, daily exposure and duration of engagement in the particular operating environment.
15. The influence of unwanted steering disturbances, and in particular bump steer and on-centre steering variability, on driver fatigue should be investigated.
16. Research should be carried out to investigate the effects of prime mover handling (from highly understeering through to neutral steering) on ease of steering control and safe operation under all road conditions.

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